Monday, May 25, 2020
Event Management Sports event management is the management of the participation of people to an organized time limited event. Events showcase to the public the image of a given sport and its teams hence it is crucial that a favorable image during major events be portrayed. The importance of event organizing is reflected in the move taken by many local authorities to appoint event officers in their respective departments (Watt, 2003). Even in small local authoritative organization at least one person will have event management as their job role, this is largely due to their relevance to sports event management (Watt, 2003). Sports events are not just organized for all the obvious reasons, they are sometimes held to feel the market, used by politicians for publicity, to set up market, create public awareness and so on. It has also been used in the UK to encourage urban development as money gets invested in the market where the event is held (Watt, 2003). A well thought sports event is an incentive to organizers, participants, and owners of teams. In addition to this the venue, funding, time table, selection of people, and evaluation of event also need to be decided upon (Watt, 2003). Market Management Marketing is the field of management that promotes goods and services to consumers, the marketer job is to market a product the customer wants by identifying customer needs. As product desirability only remains till the customer deems it so, hence it is a challenge forShow MoreRelatedCultural Background Of Hispanic Ethnicity1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPeople of Hispanic origin have already made their presence felt in various fields of human endeavor in the United States. Whether it is their involvement in politics, corporate management or even sports, Hispanics have showed that they have what it takes to perform at par with any other racial group. When it comes to the involvement of a particular minority in any activity there are bound to be certain issues. This paper will explore the themes of sporting identities to analyze the experiences ofRead MoreImproving Sports At School Time1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageseducation. Even public schools do not allocate enough time for kids to pract ice sports as much as they do for class-based education. In fact, physical activity for children is not only about pleasure time. Rather, it helps grown-up children to extend their capacity to grasp concepts explained in their classes. Children who are active while doing physical activity are expected to be active at class time. Thus, encouraging sports at school time is essential for child development not only for educationalRead MoreThe Leadership Qualities Of A Athletic Administrator4669 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pageshave transformed the purpose of youth participation in organized athletic programs from children/teenagers simply having fun to economic gains. Today, youth sports emulate the win at all costs philosophy of collegiate and professional sports, which has resulted in the decrease of participation and retention. The definition of success is not whether a student has improved his or her life either academically, athletically or personally by participating in sports, but instea d the number of wins andRead MoreSample Marketing Plan7635 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pages 1.0 Executive Summary All4Sports is a tax-exempt not-for-profit organization that provides the community with a complete youth sports program. All4Sports offers participants from kindergarten to high school positive learning and team experiences along with the opportunity to create life-long memories. All4Sports continues to be the premier provider of youth sports experiences, and seeks to make this experience affordable and available for all interested participants. This is done through a seriesRead MoreLiterature Review on Sports2856 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesSubject 23 April 2012 Sports Literature Review: Austerely k in his work Ã¢â¬Å"Sport and Community Organization in the 21st centuryÃ¢â¬ states that, The facts concerning the benefits of sports contribution to the sports world is not quite strong because of its non sectarian nature. Studies on sports participation are characteristically based on self-report data from individuals and stakeholders implicated in sport programs. They are likely to have a faith in the value of sports and in sports personnel, and notRead MoreOnline Education Versus Traditional Education1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOnline Education versus Traditional Education Many students have a difficult time choosing between online education and traditional education. Both styles of education offer advantages and disadvantages to the student. There are many things to consider when making this life altering decision, such as, cost, convenience, time, social interaction, and technology. This information is meant to inform prospective students looking to further their education of the pros and cons of both online educationRead MoreThe Empowering Women Through Sports2314 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesEmpowering women through sports Ã¢â¬Å"You throw like a girlÃ¢â¬ this observable phenomenon is intended as an insult. But what does it mean to be Ã¢â¬Å"like a girlÃ¢â¬ ? When did being a girl receive a negative connotation? Because people live in a sexist society, all girls are considered almost physically handicapped. Oftentimes guys believe that they are better at athletics based on the fact that they are males. Reasoning that someone is better at something based on gender, is sexist. Sports empower women giving themRead MoreThe Success Factors of Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon12264 Words Ã |Ã 50 PagesACKNOWLEDGMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF APPENDICES CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2.1 Background of Event 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3.2 Statement of the Problem 3.3 The Assumption 3.4 Methodology 3.5 Limitation 3. FACTORS AFFECTING A EVENT 4.6 Public Acceptance 4.7.1 Social Environment Ã¢â¬â Cultural 4.7.2 Lifestyle 4.7 Support from Stakeholders 4.8.3 CommercialRead MoreTravel Agency Business Plan3628 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesoperations this year and provide adventure and sport/travel packages to people in the PhilippinesÃ¢â¬â¢ urban area, specifically the greater National Capital Region. An opportunity for ONDISTRATOU s success exists because the national tourism and travel industry is growing at 4%, and adventure travel at 10% annually. ONDISTRATOU is poised to take advantage of this growth and lack of competition with an experienced staff, excellent location, and effective management and marketing. ONDISTRATOU needs to focusRead MoreThe Relationship Between Sport and Tourism2925 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe relationship between sport and tourism In order to understand the meaning of sport tourism, firstly we need to understand the term sport and tourism. Generally, sport can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competitions at all levelsÃ¢â¬ (Council Of Europe, 1992). Having said that, sport is actually a form of activity
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
In Ã¢â¬Å"The Hills like White ElephantsÃ¢â¬ by Ernest Hemingway, the theme of abortion is illustrated by the clash of a male and female relationship and the symbolic meanings of the Middle East. While in Spain the American and the girl are torn between one decision: whether to have an abortion or to have a baby. Ã¢â¬Å"The Hills like White ElephantsÃ¢â¬ takes place in a train station in Spain. Ã¢â¬Å"The station [is] between two lines of rails in the sunÃ¢â¬ (Hills Like White Elephants-Litarary Analysis ). The rails run through a river valley with hills on one side of the valley; dry and barren and those on the other side are described with imagery of living, growing thing; in choosing whether to abort or to have the child, the couple have to choice between twoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hemingway uses his characters to explain their surroundings. Only important details are put into the story: Ã¢â¬Å"Almost every detail of setting, even those that may seem innocuous, is a ctually demonstrating the struggle in the two main charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds about whether or not to have an abortion.Ã¢â¬ (LoveBoat, The Setting of the Hills Like White Elephants). Through the dialogue of the story the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and respect about the conversation they are having indicates resentment and discomfort for one another. In the dialogue in the story it is obvious that the maleÃ¢â¬â¢s language overpowers hers; Ã¢â¬Å"despite her sarcastic repetition of KnowÃ¢â¬ (OBrien). The complicating factor in this clash is that the manÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge is not informative but controlling towards the girl. The American in the story is characterized as callous and a typical male: always in control. He obviously does not care whether she has the operation; he even oversimplifies the operation pushing her to his side leaving her feeling like she needs to abort the baby. The American talks into the curtain to the barman; Ã¢â¬Å"Lets drink beer, Dos CervezasÃ¢â¬ (DiYanni)the man asks for two drinks symbolizing that the American wants his life to stay the same; consisting of only him and the girl. If the girl goes through with the pregnancy he will feel as if he is a mountain; married and have to settle down. The girl on the other hand, is defined as submissive to the American and isShow MoreRelatedJohn Updikes AP and Hemingways Hills Like White Elephants1016 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe world today. It is extremely interesting to realize that though love is treasured and valued, in most cases, it takes both genders to create love, and those genders are often separated by inequality. Both these themes coincide well together; the clash of love and gender inequality is interestingly captivating. In John Updikes AP and Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s Hills Like White Elephants, both stories send a conclusive message to the reader that equality between both sexes in love and attraction is almostRead MoreEssay on Biographical References in and Hemingways Male Characters3950 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesfeaturing dominant male figures, Ernest Hemingway teases the reader by drawing biographical parallels to his own life. That is, he uses characters such as Nick Adams throughout many of his literary works in order to play off of his own strengths as well as weaknesses: Nick, like Hemingway, is perceptive and bright but also insecure. Nick Adams as well as other significant male characters, such as Frederick Henry in A Farewell to Arms and Jake Barnes in The Sun Also Rises personifies Hemingway in a sequentialRead More Censorship in Schools Essay3746 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesthe issue of censorship. In the realm of the censorship of books in schools alone, several hundred cases have surfaced each year for nearly the past decade. Controversies over which books to include in the high school English curriculum present a clash of values between teachers, school systems, and parents over what is appropriate for and meaningful to students. It is important to strike a balance between English that is meaningful to students by relating to their lives and representing diversityRead MoreBlack Naturalism and Toni Morrison: the Journey Away from Self-Love in the Bluest Eye8144 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesA mericans without considering society s insidious racist attempts to retain black men and women as cheap sources of labor, whether enslaved or ostensibly free. A universal characteristic of Morrison s published novels has been her depiction of male and female protagonists failing or succeeding on the difficult journey to freedom through self-awareness. Of course, the struggle to realize one s identity has surfaced repeatedly in literature; however, Morrison s steadfast concentration on the importance
Friday, May 15, 2020
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo from the womb before it can survive on its own. surgery has lower risk of side effects. When allowed by local law abortion in the developed world is and has long been one of the safest procedures in medicine. Uncomplicated abortions do not cause any long term mental or physical problems. Every year unsafe abortions cause 47,000 deaths and 5 million hospital admissions. Around 44 million abortions occur each year in the world, with a little under half done unsafely. Abortion rates have changed little between 2003 and 2008,, 40% of the world s women had access to legal abortions without limits as to reason. However, there are limits on how late in pregnancy abortion isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as either therapeutic or elective. An abortion is medically referred to as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman; prevent harm to the woman s physical or mental health; terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child will have a significantly increased chance of premature morbidity or mortality or be otherwise disabled; or to selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy. Spontaneous Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 24th week of gestation. A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a live-born infant is known as a premature birth or a preterm birth. When a fetus dies in utero after viability, or during delivery, it is usually termed stillborn. Premature births and stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although usage of these terms can sometimes overlap. Only 30% to 50% of conceptions progress past the first trimester. The vast majority of those that do not progress are lost before the woman is aware of the conception, Between 15% and 30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage, depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman. 80% of these spontaneous abortions happen in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Discipline Investigation Introduction Everyone has to choose a major in college for his or her future job. I decided to choose Human Resources my sophomore year of college. I chose this major because I love interacting with people. I love talking, helping, and communicating with people. Another reason why I like human resources is because it is a challenge; every day is different. There is not a day that is the same at work. There are always different situations to solve. Another reason why I chose to study human resources is because I am living in Silicon Valley. There are many job opportunities in Silicon Valley. Every company needs at least one human resources employee. Bigger companies have multiple departments for human resources.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The department that I want to be part of is benefits and recruiting. The person that I interviewed was Ms. K, and her position at Company X is executive team leader of human resources. Company X is a very renowned retail chain superstore. She has worked at Co mpany X for five years. In this assignment I will share Ms. KÃ¢â¬â¢s background, career path, roles and responsibilities, and communication skills she uses on the job. Background and Career Path Ms. K is a Caucasian woman who has lived in San Jose all her life. Ms. K graduated from the University of California Santa Barbara. Here, she studied both sociology and psychology. She held several other positions before working for her current company. This included being an intern at American Red Cross, and she also worked at a bank as a teller before. She worked at the bank for almost a year before she decided that being a teller was not her ideal job. She told herself at that point in her life that she did not put in all that time and effort in her studies to become a teller. She joked that she enjoyed her position as a teller, but she did not enjoy her paycheck as much. She explained to me that she could not support her family with that salary. According to Ã¢â¬Å"How Much Do Bank Tellers MakeÃ¢â¬ by Noel Griffith, the author explains the same situation. Mr. Noel explains, Ã¢â¬Å"According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the average salary of a bank teller is $25,760.Ã¢â¬ One day she came across a job
The United States exported over $140 billion in agricultural value to the international market in 2013, which $56 billion (40 percent) was to 20 FTA partner countries; within 10 years, this data increased more than 130 percent from $24 billion in 2003. FTAs have lower the price of American produce in U.S. free trade partnersÃ¢â¬â¢ agricultural market, hence, raised the quantity demanded. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Under the U.S.Ã¢â¬ Chile FTA, U.S. agricultural exports to Chile have grown by more than 525%, increasing from less than $145 million in 2003 to more than $900 million in 2013. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Under the U.S.Ã¢â¬ Peru FTA, U.S. agricultural exports to Peru have grown by 230%, rising from less than $215 million inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the 1993-2011 period, U.S. agricultural exports to Canada and Mexico rose by 258% and 408%, respectively, with sales to each country topping $18 billion in 2011Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"NAFTA Triumphant: Assessing Two Decades of Gains in Trade, Growth and JobsÃ¢â¬ ). America became the largest farming supplier of Canada, which contributed 59 percent of their imports in 2012. China Ã¢â¬â a non-FTA partner became the top market for U.S. agricultural export in 2013, accounted for over $23.3 billion comparing to $21.4 billion of Canada (Cooke et al). Nevertheless, China had a population of 1.4 billion, which mean spending per capita for U.S. produce was only $16.64 dollar; for Canada was roughly $648.48 (Canada population: 33 million). The effect of free trade on consumer price for agricultural goods are not clear due to various factors such as government subsidies, increase in domestic farming productivity, etc. However, it is certain that with FTAs, American consumers enjoy more variety of farming produce from different parts of the world with a lower price, at least less the tariffs rates. 3.2 Manufacturing. Manufacturing has become the focus for critics when it comes to the free-trade debate. Many people blame trade for the reduction of manufacturing jobs in the U.S. People are angry because American companies invest and build manufacturing plants abroad instead of on American soil. They are angry because American brands are being labeled: manufactured in China,
Question: Explain Assignment Wastewater Management Report? Answer: Introducation: The task that is contained in this assignment wastewater management report is purely original and has never been submitted or published in any other forum before. Therefore, if in any case should this authorship be found not bearing any truth, then a disciplinary action and penalties should be taken by the university policies and regulations. Background Australia stands to be one of the biggest countries around the world and besides it is one of the countries well known to be experiencing challenges related to water. It is approximated to be around 7 million square kilometers of which approximately one percentage of the total are is covered with water. Thus it is very clear that the supply of water to the residents of Australia is from either the natural bodies or rain. Moreover, the natural water bodies are not enough since the population also is getting bigger and bigger every day(Bonomo, 2002, p. 544). A solution to the scenario is wastewater treatment and recycling. Waste water treatment involves dealing with many types of wastes including domestic water, sewage waste, industrial waste, chemical wastes, and pesticides among others. Some plants have a better and efficient plan of recycling the wastewater thereby making it safe and clean for usage.one major challenge with the recycling of the wastewater is that it totally depends on the cooperation of the community(Chris Binnie, 2008, p. 321). This, therefore, calls for the winning of the public trust to ensure the success of this whole process. The wastewater treatment recycling plant basically consists of three different stages which includes; the primary treatment stage, secondary treatment stage and finally the tertiary treatment stage .the primary treatment stage involves mostly the solid objects such as wood, metal, paper among others which are eliminated through multi-stage screening process .60% of the solids get removed at this stage and consequently the BOD is reduced by approximately 30%. The process involved at this stage is screening, sedimentation, grit removal and finally flocculation(D. G. Rao, 2012, p. 785). The second stage is the secondary treatments stage which comprises of organic treatment thereby eliminating the organic compounds. It involves both bacterial decomposition and the conversion of the organic compounds into carbon IV oxide. The decomposition is aided through the anaerobic process. Finally, the tertiary treatment process is concerned with the removal of approximately 99% of the pollutants thereby increasing the quality of the treated water. This process involves the reverse osmosis techniques, ultrafiltration and finally microfiltration. Also, the disinfection is done at this stage. These techniques even though they are expensive, they determine the overall quality of the resulting water(Dietrich Borchardt, 2013, p. 674). Wastewater Treatment Plant Description of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Malabar The plant at Malabar is one of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the greater Sydney, Illawarra, and the Blue Mountain regions. Situated along the southern coastline, Malabar plant recycles water at approximately 627 square kilometers i.e. from Greenfield to Tasman Sea. It collects both the industrial wastes and residential sewage at a ratio of 28% and 72 % respectively and besides treats approximately 470 million liters of water daily, this amount shoots up during the wet seasons. The most challenge facing Malabar plant is the bad odor that is emanating from it which is a common complaint by the local community although there is a plan to take charge of the problem. Malabar plant wastewater treatment runs on the three stages i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary stages as discussed below(Fereidoun Ghassemi, 2007, p. 986). The primary treatment involves the separation of the larger particles. This is primarily achieved by a system of six stage screening process that comprises of different mesh size screens which separate and discard the particles regarding their sizes. The materials include plastic, metal, cotton, paper, etc. the gravel, sand and some other inorganic materials are eliminated by the use of an aerated grit allowing the wastewater to flow to the sedimentation tanks where all the solid particles settle down at the bottom(Gayathri Devi Mekala, 2008, p. 675). The solids then are further removed. Other materials that are removed are the oily materials such as the industrial oils, kitchen oils, and grease among others. After the primary treatment stage, the biological treatment follows .firstly; it is done in the absence of oxygen then later it is done aerobically. The microorganisms are used to consume the organic material and in the process decomposing them. This greatly reduces the BOD. Since the chief sources of oxygen are the nitrites, phosphates, sulfates and dissolved organic material, the anoxic treatment process is carried out in a closed chamber since it produces a bad odor(Hamidi Abdul Aziz, 2014, p. 989). The anoxic process is proceeded by the performance of the aerobic process in open tanks since the bacteria requires oxygen and also extra air for it to diffuse and mix the activated sewage and biomass into a mixed liquor. After a period of 4 to 6 hours, the concentration of oxygen is now about 2mg/Loafer aerobic process hence the mixed liquor is channeled to the clarifier for 3 hours .in the clarifier, most of the organic particles get suspended forming an activated sludge which is reused in the process(Jr, 2005, p. 975). The treated wastewater is then released into a deep ocean outfall through a large tunnel that is 3.6 kilometers long .at the discharge point, the sea is 80m deep. The disinfectant used is the salt water since most of the bacteria are not able to survive in heavy sunlight .the wastewater outfalls and their surrounding are continuously monitored by the Sydney water and the environment protection agency. During this process, the solids that are located at the sedimentation tanks are also treated in the aerobic digesters. This helps in stabilizing the process that follows into the biosolids and furthermore prevents the odor from rising into serious levels. The decomposition of anaerobic solids results into methane gas which can be beneficially used in the production of electricity and also utilization in the heat digesters(Kurbiel, 2003, p. 636). The digested solid goes into the centrifuge where excess water gets eliminated and treated with other wastewater. The dry bio can be used in farms as compost manure. Below is a schematic diagram of the flow chart Alternate Wastewater Treatment System Using MBR MBR in full means membrane bioreactor which provides high quality treated water from the effluent water. This system involves the primary process which is similar to the conventional screening and removal of grit.The difference is realized in the secondary stage where the retention of the anoxic process is reduced by an hour after which the aeration tanks is used to promote the rate of decomposition by the microorganism, and the air gets continuously bubbled. The membrane reactors play its role after the water that is contained in the aeration is released. Water is then passed through the membrane in the form of very grainy particles meaning that only the small particles can pass through the membrane .all the microorganisms are thus discarded, and 75% of the dissolved particles are removed(LO Kolarik, 2008, p. 674). The process of ultrafiltration and biological treatment for the MBR is more advanced than the conventional method of wastewater treatment. This method is effectively and efficiently used in the municipal water plants, agricultural and in industrial applications. Below is the proposed MBR system (Gayathri Devi Mekala, 2008, p. 535). The total space that is required is the addition of the reactor and clarifier space as illustrated in the below equations. BOD load = average dry weather flow * raw sewage =23 * 275 kg/day =6.325* 103 kg/day Volume of the biological reactor = BOD load * sludge yield * SRT /mlss =6325 *1*15/3500 =27108.14 m3 Aerobic reactor volume(V.K. Gupta, 2012, p. 543). =Total volume * aerobic zone SRT/SRT =27108.14*10/15 =18072.1 m3 Anoxic reactor volume =total volume total volume of the aerobic reactor =27108-18072.1 =9035.9 m3 Area of the reactor = volume / depth =27108.14/4.5 =6024 m2 Size of the clarifier Maximum wastewater flow =PWWF+RAS =3 ADWF +ADWF =4ADWF =4*23 =92 ML /day or 3833.33 m3/hr. Solids load = maximum wastewater flow * MLSS Solids load =3833.33 * 3500* =13416.65kg/h Surface area of the clarifier =solids load / (number of clarifiers *maximum loading rate) =13416.65/7*2 =958.33 m2 Total area for the activated sludge system =surface area of biological reactor + surface area of clarifier =6024+939.05 =6963.05 m2 Total area =area of clarifier + area of biological membrane Area of biological membrane = total volume /reactor depth =27107.142/4.5 =6023.80 m2 Total area = 6023.80 + 939.05 * 2 =7901.9 m2 Membrane cell size The Total area of The Membrane =PWWWF/peak flux =3*23/40 =71875 m2 The total number of membrane modules required= total membrane area /membrane module area = 71875/50 =1438 modules Number of cassettes =no of modules /modules per cassette =1438/32 =45 cassettes Membrane zone volume =volume of cassette * number of cassettes =45*4*2 =360m2 Total space required for the MBR =surface area of the biological reactor + total cassette area =1898+ 360 =2258 m2 Comparison regarding space The membrane system area = 6983 m3 whereas the membrane system =2258 m2 This shows that the space required for setting up the MBR is almost a third of the conventional system thus it occupies less space(Michigan, 2009, p. 583). Power requirement The specific oxygen rate =AOR * DO peak / (B*DO sat- DO zone) x =1.6 * 1.4*9.02 / (0.97*9.02-2)0.65 =4.61 kg O2/kg BOD The BOD load = 6325kg/load Oxygen requirement =BOD load *SOR =6325 * 4.61 =29129.80 kg O2/day =1213.74kg O2/hour The total energy requirement =1213.74/3.5 = 347 kW The specific energy = the total energy requirement /volume of bioreactor =347 /27108 =0.0128 kW/ m3 Energy requirement for MBR SOR = Real * DO sat/ (B*DOsat-DOzone) =3.89 kg O2/ kg BOD Total energy requirement =319.585/ 3.5 =91.31kW Power requirement for membrane zone =3* 2875 =862.5 kW Specific energy =total energy requirement / volume of bioreactor =91.31/ 9488 =0.0096 kW / m3 Comparison of the power requirement For the MBR treatment, the amount of energy required is lower than that of the conventional method of treatment Advantages and Limitations of MBR and the Present Wastewater Treatment System The introduction of the membrane techniques in MBR makes it more efficient than the conventional means treating wastewater. This is because the quality of the effluent is increased with the MBR method. Moreover, this method requires a less space since the later stages are not very essential thus reducing the overall cost. Also, the retention time for the wastewater is reduced plus the volumetric rate is high thereby it handles a more volume than the conventional method over the same period of operation(Partners, 2005, p. 733). The effluent that is passed through the MBR consists of fewer amounts of phosphates and suspended solids as compared to the conventional means .the major limitation of the membrane reactor is the necessity for a huge amount of pumping energy since the wastewater is passed at a very high pressure .not only there are increased costs due to the chemicals that are involved in the treatment process but also these chemicals reduces the quality of the final effluent. Moreover, regular backwashing of the membrane is required at the pores to prevent blockage. Although the backwashing often results into increasing of the pores size. On the other hand, the present treatment method requires less capital investment due to the simple process that it involves. There are no frequent expenses since the construction is always strong. Furthermore, the energy requirement is also reduced(Pawlowski, 2007, p. 183). Advantages of conventional method Reduced capital cost and production costs as compared to the MBR treatment The energy consumption in the conventional method is very low as compared to the MBR treatment method(Russell L. Culp, 2008, p. 646). The maintenance cost is low as compared to the MBR method The conventional method is simple since less automation is required(Xie, 2013, p. 442). Disadvantages The quality of the water produced is low as compared to the MBR method. There are additional costs of biosolids since there is more production of sludge. When compared to the MBR method, the conventional treatment method tends to be slower and time-consuming. It results in more carbon footprint(Amjad, 2010, p. 342). Advantages of MBR treatment This method produces water of a higher quality as compared to the conventional method There is no need for many processes as in the case of conventional method The MBR treatment method consumes a little time The problem of odor is greatly reduced with the MBR treatment This method entails a reduced concentration of BOD, bacteria and suspended solids in the effluent as compared to the conventional method. The membrane separation is dependent on the size of the membrane pores hence there is a high degree of separation. Disadvantages Both the capital cost and the maintenance cost is higher as compared to the conventional method The MBR system consumes a higher amount of energy due to automation. Moreover, this method requires regular checkups hence costly It requires skilled labor for the operation of the process. This method is accompanied with problems of surface fouling(Singh, 2006, p. 992). Drinking water supply augmentation Flow chart diagram of the conventional treatment and MBR treatment Below is the flow chart for both the conventional means of treating water and the MBR treatment methods. Conventional treatment method(Bonomo, 2002, p. 532). Proposed MBR method(Gayathri Devi Mekala, 2008, p. 535). Rationale for the chosen component The method that is used presently at Malabar for managing the wastewater and in turn producing high-quality drinking water is the conventional method. In the primary stage of the treatment process, the plant applies screening, air stripping, flocculation, grit removal, and oxidation. The impurities are after that settled down by passing the effluent through a primary clarifier. In the secondary stage, it includes the biological handling of the effluent whereby the effluent is passed through the anoxic and aerobic zone which essentially discards all the BODs. The remaining impurities are then settled in the secondary clarifier thereby allowing water to pass through into the primary filtration chamber to attain a high quality of the drinking water .it is then passed through a second filtration and also carbon filtration. The carbon filtration process involves the removal of watercolor, taste, and odor. Finally, the water is taken into the final stage that involves the disinfection by using chlorine to eliminate all the bacteria that may result into diseases(Steusloff, 2010, p. 645). The components that are selected for the conventional treatment system plays a greater role in the general coming up of the high-quality drinking water. In the primary stage, the bigger sized particles are eliminated including the suspended solids. The secondary stage ensures the aerobic and anoxic digestion which eliminates the biological and other organic impurities .finally the filtration and chlorination processes ensures that the water is made free from any bacteria that may be a causal for diseases(Steven E. Esmond, 2002, p. 330). Selection of MBR components Just like the conventional means of treating water, the primary treatment process and the clarification process eliminates the coarse particles and the BODs. In the MBR treatment, the membrane provides the biological elimination process. The membrane helps to selectively discard the solids in the water and thereby producing water of high quality.In the Malabar water treatment plant, the pore size of the membrane is approximately 2mm which discards even the tiniest impurity. The final process of disinfection is achieved through chlorination(Thomas Mitchell Schmidt, 2012, p. 846). Conclusion The selection of the treatment method to be used greatly depends on the public perception. The community is greatly concerned with the quality of the water produced. From the comparisons, between the MBR treatment method and the conventional method; the MBR method is the most recommended method to be applied as a result of high speed and quality of the water produced(Zaini Ujang, 2009, p. 555). References Amjad, Z., 2010. The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment. 2nd ed. Melbourne: CRC Press. Bonomo, L., 2002. Advanced Wastewater Treatment, Recycling, and Reuse. 2nd ed. Minnesota: Pergamon Press. Chris Binnie, M. K., 2008. Water Reuse, Scientific, and Technical Report Series. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: IWA Publishing. G. Rao, R. S. J. A. B. S. F., 2012. Wastewater Treatment: Advanced Processes and Technologies. 2nd ed. new York: CRC Press, Dietrich Borchardt, R. I., 2013. Integrated Water Resources Management in a Changing World. 1st ed. Manchester: IWA Publishing, Fereidoun Ghassemi, I. W., 2007. Inter-Basin Water Transfer. 3rd ed. London: Cambridge University Press. Gayathri Devi Mekala, B. D. M. S. A.-M. B., 2008. A framework for efficient wastewater treatment and recycling systems. 2nd ed. Sydney: IWMI. Hamidi Abdul Aziz, A. M., 2014. Wastewater Engineering: Advanced Wastewater Treatment Systems. 2nd ed. Melbourne: IJSR Publications. Jr, J. J. M., 2005. Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design. 4th ed. new York: CRC Press, Kurbiel, J., 2003. Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation. 2nd ed. new York: Pergamon Press, LO Kolarik, A. P., 2008. Modern Techniques in Water and Wastewater Treatment. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Csiro Publishing, Michigan, t. U. o., 2009. Advanced wastewater treatment. 6th ed. Carlisle: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Partners, G., 2005. Engineering SoundBite: Advanced Wastewater Treatment. 3rd ed. new York: Guyer Partners. Pawlowski, L., 2007. Physicochemical Methods for Water and Wastewater Treatment. 2nd ed. Carlisle: Elsevier, Russell L. Culp, G. M. W. G. L. C., 2008. Handbook of Advanced Wastewater Treatment. 5th ed. Chicago: Van Nostrand Reinhold, Singh, R., 2006. Hybrid Membrane Systems for Water Purification. 2nd ed. Chicago: Elsevier. Steusloff, H., 2010. Integrated Water Resources Management Karlsruhe 2010:. 3rd ed. new York: KIT Scientific Publishing. Steven E. Esmond, T. A. . M. U. M. E. R. L., 2002. The removal of metals and viruses in advanced wastewater treatment sequences, Volume 1. 3rd ed. Carlisle: Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thomas Mitchell Schmidt, M. S., 2012. Topics in Ecological and Environmental Microbiology. 2nd ed. Leicester: Academic Press. V.K. Gupta, I. A., 2012. Environmental Water: Advances in Treatment, Remediation, and Recycling. 2nd ed. Westminster: Newnes. Xie, L., 2013. Hydraulic Engineering. 2nd ed. London: CRC Press, Zaini Ujang, M. H., 2009. Environmental Biotechnology: Advancement in Water and Wastewater Application in the Tropics. 5th ed. Sydney: IWA Publishing.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theCorporation Law: Australian Securities and Investments. Answer: No liability companies come under public companies and are mentioned in section 112 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). Hence a no liability company can be termed to be so if it has its own share capital. The company must have its own constitution which will contain the main objectives of the company. As per the constitution of the company, it will not have any right to contract with regards to recovering calls made pertaining to the shares which are not paid by the shareholders (Austlii.edu.au, 2017). As per the rules those companies who engage in mining activities can only be registered as no liability companies. The no liability company has to be registered as per the requirements of section 117 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). Under sub section 1, the person intending to register the company has to lodge an application with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC). A no liability company comes under the categories of companies as mentioned in section 112 of the Act. The sub section 2 of section 117 will contain the aspects of the application (Austlii.edu.au, 2017). Initially the type of company that is to be registered is to be specified. Then the proposed name of the company or the Australian Company Number has to be mentioned. It will be followed by names and address of the proposed members. It will include details of directors and company secretary of the company. It is important that the address of the proposed registered office of the company is mentioned. Since the no liability company is a public company the possible opening hours of the registered office has to be mentioned. Sub section 3 of the same section speaks about a public company that is to be registered. The company needs to have its own constitution. The applicant has to provide a copy of the constitution along with the constitution. The application form should cover all the agreements and consents. Once the registration process is completed, the consents and the agreements have to be handed over to the company by the applicant. Section 134 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) speaks about the companys internal governance and management. Thus the internal management of the company can be followed as per the provisions of the concerned Act (Austlii.edu.au, 2017). The internal management can be in the form of replaceable rules, constitution or both combined. The company may also follow the other rules regarding internal management which is treated as common law. Section 135 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) speaks about the replaceable rules of the company. As per the provision, a company may incorporate a replaceable rule within its constitution which is usually not applicable. It also says that the replaceable rules can be removed or modified by the constitution (Austlii.edu.au, 2017). As per section 254A (2) of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), a company can issue preference shares if rights pertaining to such issue is mentioned in the constitution of the company or through special resolution. These rights may be with respect to payment of the capital to the shareholders (Austlii.edu.au, 2017). The rights may be with respect to right of the shareholders with respect to profits and assets in surplus. The rights should also be pertaining to dividends that are cumulative and non cumulative. The rights are in relation to voting of the preference shares. Finally it is with respect to prioritising payment of capital and dividend with respect to other class of preference shares. Subsection 3 speaks about redeemable preference shares. These shares are issued on the conditioned that they can be bought back or redeemed. Thus these shares can be redeemed at the option of the company or the shareholder. They can also be redeemed when a period of time ends or an event occurs. References Austlii.edu.au. (2017).CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - SECT 112. [online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca2001172/s112.html [Accessed 21 May 2017]. Austlii.edu.au. (2017).CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - SECT 117. [online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca2001172/s117.html [Accessed 20 May 2017]. Austlii.edu.au. (2017).CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - SECT 134. [online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca2001172/s134.html [Accessed 20 May 2017]. Austlii.edu.au. (2017).CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - SECT 135. [online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca2001172/s135.html [Accessed 21 May 2017]. Austlii.edu.au. (2017).CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - SECT 254A. [online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca2001172/s254a.html [Accessed 20 May 2017].