Friday, December 27, 2019

The Children Left Behind - 788 Words

The Children Left Behind (Rough Draft 1) Learning disability is a worldwide problem affecting over 2.4 million children in the United States alone. All types of communities are afflicted by learning disabilities causing problems, but it seems children in urban areas struggle the most, as those schools generally don’t provide extra help. Disabilities like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, and dyscalculia are issues you can see by looking at someone, and are often overlooked by schools in at risk neighborhoods. Students with learning disabilities earn lower grades and experience higher rates of course failure than students without learning disabilities. To help fix the problem of students with learning disabilities dropping out of school, more specialized teachers should be put in place to cater to children with learning disabilities. A learning disability is defined as a â€Å"neurological condition that interferes with an individual’s ability t o store, process, or produce information† (â€Å"New to LD† 1). Learning disabilities can affect one’s ability to read, write, speak, spell, compute math, and reason: all of which are essential for learning in today’s public school system. An individual’s attention, memory, coordination, social skills, and emotional maturity can also be negatively impacted with the presence of a learning disability. According to the National Center for Learning Disability, â€Å"approximately 5 percent of the total public school enrollmentShow MoreRelatedLeft Behind Children in China1986 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"Left behind children† in China has become a serious and critical issue that approximately 58 million rural children have been left to fend for themselves after their parents migrate to cities for work. â€Å"Left-behind children† refers to a large group of children in rural areas living with their grandparents, relatives, neighbors and par ents friends, or teachers after their parents left them at hometowns and migrate to big cities for making a living. According to the latest report of Chinese EducationRead MoreSupport Kin Carers Support For The Left Behind Children Of The Female Migrant Workers1378 Words   |  6 Pagesthe left behind children of the female migrant workers to the Middle East Buddhiprabha D. D. Pathirana Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Department of Philosophy Psychology, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Author Note Correspondence concerning this paper should be directed to Dr. Buddhiprabha D.D.Pathirana, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, at â€Æ' Developing guidelines to support kin carers providing care and support to left behind children of theRead MoreMany Philippinos are Mothering from a Distance Essay1084 Words   |  5 Pagesand lack of quality jobs in the past 40 years, an increasing number of Filipina migrants are mothering their children from a distance. According to Rhacel Salazar Parrenas, a Professor at USC, the term mothering from a distance has damaging ramifications both for the mothers who leave and the children who are left behind. In order to provide for their families, they must leave them behind in the Philippines and take advantage of the greater labor market opportunities in other countries of Asia,Read MoreShould Children Have A Special Need?1676 Words   |  7 PagesShould children in today’s world who have a special need or don’t have a special need be held back in school? Should they be the one’s who are responsible for not reaching academic proficiency due to having a disabil ity or unable to reach grade level standards? The No Child Left Behind Act gives all children a fair, equal chance to reach the minimum proficiency on standard academic assessments that they are expected to take whether they have a disability or not. The current talk among professionalsRead MoreThe Ramifications of Government Reform on Education Essay1354 Words   |  6 Pagesgovernment acts like No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Common Core curriculums have been put into effect in order to reverse America’s position. They are best understood as tools to bridge the achievement gap regardless of what a child may look like, sound like, or what part of the nation they come from. These programs are designed to help all children excel in school no matter what. Even though the No Child Left Behind Act significantly increased the average performance of children in math in both lower andRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pages The No Child Left Behind Act was based on the Elementary Secondary Education Act of 1965. The act was established based on the promise of Thomas Jefferson to create a free public education system in Virginia (Hammond, Kohn, Meier, Sizer Wood, 2004). The act is now reauthor ized as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The purpose of the No Child Left Behind Act was to make sure that children were given a fair, quality education. The act set out to close the achievement gaps in educationRead MoreEssay about No Child Left Behind May Leave Some Behind965 Words   |  4 Pagescountless changes in just a few years. Are these changes for the better? Children in the current school system are faced with numerous tests every year. Why are they being constantly tested? The ceaseless use of standardized testing is a result of the No Child Left Behind Act. Continuous talk about the No Child Left Behind Act can be heard in the hallways of schools nationwide, but why does it matter? The No Child Left Behind Act plays a major role in our students’ education. The students affectedRead MoreAttachment Theory And Attachment Theories1053 Words   |  5 Pagesin touch with their children or they ignore their child which built a failed emotion communication (Metzg er, Erdman, Ng 87). Also, it may be repeated from one generation to another until it is not recovered. However, as a result of attachment theory, it is so important for children to know about it and there are also several emotional effects on children when their parents leave to go to another county due to their connections or bond between them. The children have to understand theRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Is An Act Designed985 Words   |  4 PagesAs previously stated, No Child Left Behind is an act designed to help students achieve and learn more in the elementary through high school grade levels. The act was put into place on January 8th, 2002 by President Bush as a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (No Child Left Behind). The act was implemented into every public school in America, and has promoted the emphasis on math, reading and writing (White). The act required annual testing in schools of all students fromRead More No Child Left Behind Will Reform Our Educational System Essay1748 Words   |  7 PagesNo Child Left Behind Will Reform Our Educational System (this essay is missing the works cited) Just three days after taking office in January of 2001 as the forty third president of the United States, George W. Bush announced his plan of No Child Left Behind. Signed January 8, 2002, it was the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the central federal law in pre-collegiate education. (Rebora) No Child Left Behind cleared Congress in a landslide with overwhelming majorities

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Brave New World By Aldous Huxley And The Giver By Lois Lowry

Humanity is a species that relies heavily on emotion in our day to day lives. Not only do these emotions vary from day to day, but these emotions range throughout the course of a day as well. In novels such as Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and The Giver by Lois Lowry, the idea of a society that relies heavily on the suppression of intense emotion is explored. Does intense emotion hinder the advancement of society or is it what propels us forward? I believe that both Brave New World and The Giver support the idea that a perfect society cannot be created without intense emotion and trying to remove it from life creates stagnation and leaves one feeling unfulfilled. Ignorance is a strange kind of peace and happiness that can be seen in Brave New World. The society is partially built, or at the least, held together by the idea that intense emotion does not exist or is not needed. The government, also known as the World State, does it’s best to shield the public from any harsh e motions that could lead to an upset. The World State clones only those with the best genes fit for their future jobs and conditions the fetuses until they believe that the thoughts instilled in them were truly theirs. The government even teaches its citizens, through repetitive recordings and other kinds of conditioning, to be happy with their lot in life and to respect the jobs of others as well as their position in the world. This helps to quell excessive individuality and gives everyoneShow MoreRelatedA Comparison of Utopian Societies885 Words   |  4 PagesEver since the worlds first nation state was created, the number one goal of its citizens has been to create the â€Å"perfect† society. To a majority of people in the novels Brave New World (c.1932) by Aldous Huxley and The Giver (c.1993) by Lois Lowry, a utopia and â€Å"perfect† society has been accomplished. But at a second glance, the world that Huxley creates and Lowry’s community are actually tota litarian dystopias with many secrets. The similarities of both novels are evident and some readers may makeRead MoreEssay about Utopian Literature1833 Words   |  8 Pageslives. For example, Aldous Huxley wrote his Brave New World in 1932, a book which depicts the dehumanizing factor associated with utopian culture. George Orwell, the infamous lexicographer of satire, published many works in the same era as Huxley, including Animal Farmand 1984. The former is a satire aimed at defaming communism.2 The latter is a warning against superpowers and abuses of scientific technology. Most recently, Lois Lowry crafted her riveting book The Giver. The Giver concentrates on refutingRead MoreThe Giver, By Lois Lowry Essay2288 Words   |  10 PagesIn The Giver the authorities aim at achieving â€Å"Sameness† which means all people must be equal and the same. Lois Lowry describes a world of â€Å"sameness† where the lack of differences allows all members of the community to ha ve predetermined roles and to follow an enforced set of rules. The Elders depict sameness in a way that makes it sound absolutely necessary, and without it, the whole world may fall apart. In the community of The Giver people accept everything as it is because they do not knowRead MoreHuxley s Brave New World And Lowry s The Giver Essay2151 Words   |  9 PagesHuxley’s Brave New World and Lowry’s The Giver explore the idea that conformity and sameness replace diversity and individuality by means of scientific experiments done to the genes. So the ideology of eliminating individuality and uniqueness is one of the requirements of the continuity of the dystopian functional society. Chris Ferns sees that in the dystopian society â€Å"people are types rather than distinct individuals† (Ferns 113). Booker and Thomas also see that â€Å"people are even referred to asRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Dystopian Fiction879 Words   |  4 Pagesthey are because they all decid ed to do it, so it must be fine. Right? My chief example of this has to be the Aldous Huxley classic Brave New World. If you haven’t read this novel, please see my questions above regarding Orwell’s 1984, and kindly turn in your science fiction nerd/geek card to the nearest comic book shop, used book store, or tabletop gaming center. So anyway, in Brave New World everyone knows their place in society and knows their purpose in life. Society is divided as in order to maintain

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Kill Bill Mixed

Kill Bill Mixed-Genre Film Essay In the movie Kill Bill Vol. 2, Quentin Tarantino the writer and director of the movie incorporates a vast array of genres such as Samurai, Hardbody, Kung fu and the Spaghetti Western to form not just an action film but a mixed-genre film. Through the use of the movie as well as a small segment of a fight scene between Beatrix Kiddo and Elle Driver there is evidence of all four genres within the movie. These genres can be identified through iconography, themes, narrative structure, cinematography and any other concepts/ideas that are associated with the genres. The samurai genre is portrayed quite strongly in Kill Bill 2. Especially through the iconography associated in the film. One of the strongest icons in Chambara (samurai movies) is the katana, the traditional Japanese warrior sword. Within the small segment the two warriors battle with the katana. The way some shots are set up to see the fighting from the view of the sword or the slow pan against the sword edge with light reflecting off the blade are ways the filmmakers have highlighted the strong iconography and to bring out the dangerous symbolism within it. In terms of narrative structure, Kiddo follows the profile of the lone samurai. Who in many classic Japanese movies such as Long Wolf and Cub is described to be a character on a mission for vengeance, which in her case, is very similar to her journey. Many classic Japanese movies also contain this story of endless adventure where the filmmakers produce a long-lived series starring a main character who is so skilled with her weapon (katana) he/she is virtually invincible (relating to the Hardbody genre). How the filmmakers decided to include two volumes of Kiddows journey for vengeance is quite similar to how the Chambara filmmakers create multiple volumes of their stories. Within the iconography and narrative structure also lie the themes of the samurai genre. The main themes that relate to the narrative of Kill Bill are loyalty and honor as well as seeking a place in society. The loyalty and honor theme is evident in most Japanese war films such as Ran, where loyalty and honor to you clan is vital (death before dishonor). When Kiddow betrayed the loyalty to the clan Bills assassins hunted her because she had dishonored the clan. Samurais are often searching for a place in society, somewhere they belong. Kiddow never really had a place in society, but once she became pregnant she tried to fit herself back into society only to have it taken away by Bill. Features in the genre, particularly on the invincibility of the samurai are very evident and similar to the Hardbody genre. The Hardbody genre is notable for the excessive violence and hyperbolic action sequences, and the hardbodied protagonists dominating these films, perpetrating both the violence and action of the narratives with super heroic glee. The iconography associated with the Hardbody genre is the large strong, battle-beaten character that fights off all evil to save the day. This is a certain element that was twisted in Kill Bill. Instead of having the large muscular character, it was just a small woman with no strong physical features. However, even though she didnt contain the strong features she made up for it in attitude. The kill anything in my path attitude was exemplified especially when she tore Elle Drivers eye out. Even though she lacked the features of the character she maintained the attitude that created an interesting aspect to her character. Even though she seemed small and innocent on the outside she was a hardbodied warrior with a killing attitude. .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa , .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .postImageUrl , .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa , .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:hover , .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:visited , .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:active { border:0!important; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:active , .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8373b5f09a2dc3f354e39ca4ba67f5fa:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Movie Overview - Collateral EssayThe way the filmmakers constructed her ability to survive being buried in a deep grave and continue to battle. During the fight sequence she endured a lot of hits and blows from Driver but Kiddow just shrugged them off and continued to fight. The entire fight scene was an example of the Hardbody genre of how Kiddow was able to take blows and still continue to fight as if they were nothing, and after the fight was over she continued on her journey. The kung fu genre was not as heavily defined like the samurai genre. However, in terms of iconography there was evidence of traditional Chinese martial arts animal poses used e. g.when Driver struck a snake like position just before she attacked. The fighting was where the kung fu genre shined the most. When they were fighting bits of dust were flying in the air, mixing with the light to create this sense of power. The sound effects as well were also quite loud and effective which is commonly found in kung fu (wu xia) movies such as Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon. Even though most of the fighting was with swords play there was one moment where Driver flies through the air with a kick, delivering a kung fu type of unrealistic acrobatic movement with the wires that is commonly found in kung fu movies. In some kung fu movies such as the ones starring Jackie Chan, there is a certain comedic element. At one point both Driver and Kiddow kick each other at the same time providing a comedic element to the martial arts. By adding this comedic element, the filmmakers are actually not just taking one aspect of kung fu, but incorporating a wide range. The narrative isnt based on a common kung fu narrative structure, even though she is on a journey of vengeance this narrative structure is pretty much evident in most genres. However, the theme of a student-master relationship is mentioned in the segment where Driver tells Kiddow that she had killed her master, enraging and upsetting Kiddow. The cinematography also contains kung fu genre elements such as the slow pan of the two womans faces as well as weapons before they battle as well as in the beginning when Driver opens the door creating a quick zoom into her head which was commonly found in older kung fu movies, highlighting the comedic approach. The spaghetti western genre was also evident among the mixture of genres. In terms of iconography the dry and empty desert plane is a strong associate for the western genre. However, I believe the strongest element of the spaghetti genre lies within the sound as well as the one on one showdown. When the time comes for Driver and Kiddow to battle, the shot is composed in a western showdown style. Eyes locked, hands cocked and ready to make a move. At this point the sound comes on. The spaghetti western type music while the shots cycle back and forth. The music is the typical western one on one showdown, with an opera like soundtrack. The elements within genres such as the samurai genre, Hardbody genre, kung fu genre and spaghetti western genre mix together to form a miced-genre film within Kill Bill Vol. 2. This mix genre is well incorporated, containing iconography, themes, narrative structure, cinematography and other concepts/ideas that are produced by the filmmakers to create an action-packed movie.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Nelle Harper Lee Was Born On The 28th Day Of April In 1926, In Southwe

Nelle Harper Lee was born on the 28th day of April in 1926, in southwest Alabama in a small town called Monroeville. Monroeville has a population of 7,000 people. Harper Lee is the youngest of four children of Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Lee. Harper Lee went to Huntingdon College from 1944-45, from 1945-49 she studied law at the University of Alabama, and attended one year at Oxford University. In the 1950s she worked as a reservation clerk with BOAC in New York City and with Eastern Air Lines. In 1957 Harper Lee handed in the manuscript of her novel to the J.B. Lippincott Company. She was told that her novel was a bunch of short stories put together, and she was urged to re-write it. Finally in 1960 she published her first and only book to get published, To Kill a Mockingbird. Harper Lee has won many awards, they are; Pulitzer Prize, 1961, Alabama Library Association award, 1961, Brotherhood Award of National Conference of Christians and Jews, 1961, Bestsellers paperback of the year award, 1962. All these awards were for To Kill a Mockingbird. Harper Lee had two articles published in 1961: Love - - In Other Words, in Vogue and Christmas To Me, in McCalls. Christmas To Me is the story of Harper Lee getting the gift of a years time for writing from her friends. In 1965 When Children Discover America was published. In June 1966, President Johnson named Harper Lee to the National Council of Arts. Harper Lee has received many honorary doctorates. In 1997 she received an honorary doctorate of humane letters at Spring Hill College in Mobile Alabama. Professor Margaret Davis told Harper Lee that she was being honoured for her lyrical elegance, her portrayal of human strength, and wisdom. A couple of Harper Lees interests were golf and music.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Models help or hinder the search for knowledge Essay Example

Models help or hinder the search for knowledge Essay A model is a representation of a complex structure or concept that is used to explain it and represent it in a more simplistic manner with the aim of facilitating the understanding of it. Models are used in a variety of subjects such as natural sciences, government structures, history and many more. Although they are simplified simulations, they provide a representation of reality that help our learning and understanding of the phenomena that occur. However, models have the possibility of leading us into an error or incorrect information and thus present limitations that have the potential of hindering the knowledge. Models can be broken down into four main categories. Experimental models which can be constructed and put to use in a laboratory. A ‘scale models would fit under this category, representing spatial relationships, and ‘working models’ representing temporal sequences. At the other end of the spectrum are logical models. These start from the axioms and theorems of a formal deductive system, they are used to illustrate abstract systems and provide a possible interpretation of it. Lastly, there are theoretical models. These are imaginative mental constructions made to conceptualize observed phenomena. They are usually imagined mechanisms that are described with analogies to familiar processes. For instance, in physics, the â€Å"billiard-ball model† of gas is a perfect example of a theoretical model. Although it is intended to represent an underlying structure of a physical system, it is merely a symbolic representation that is developed into a theory that explains the phenomena as a model. A relevant knowledge issue concerning theoretical models would: to what extend can models give a realistic and accurate representation of reality? We will write a custom essay sample on Models help or hinder the search for knowledge specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Models help or hinder the search for knowledge specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Models help or hinder the search for knowledge specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Consider a container full of a gas such as air and imagine that it is composed of minuscule elastic spheres bouncing around. It can be assumed that the mechanical behavior of the spheres is similar to the behavior of colliding billiard balls. From this assumption, a theory can be put forward, the one of Kinetic Theory of Gases that involves equations interrelating the velocity (p), mass (m), momentum and energy of the hypothetical spheres. None of these theoretical properties can be physically observed. On the other hand, some theoretical terms could be related to observable properties of the gas, for instance, a change in the momentum of the collision amongst particle with the containing wall may be identified as the pressure of the gas. These assumptions lead to Boyle’s Law stating that if the volume of a gas is reduced by 50% then the pressure of the gas will double. (e.g. compressing air during a bicycle jump). Hypothetical minuscule elastic spheres were assumed to have mass and velocity similarly to billiard balls do although no color. The analogies are not simply formal like they are in mathematics, they may be physical, elasticity and mass. In the creation of a theory, scientist may suggest a model incorporating analogies drawn from a variety of familiar situations combined with radically new assumptions. In the diagram below, all the lines going into the model are represented as dotted due to their origins lying in an act of creative imagination instead of making a purely logic based inference. Generally speaking, dotted arrows should be added coming in from other familiar situations, on the left. When imagining a model, there are explicit or implicit references to what is similar and previously intelligible, furthermore there is freedom allowing to interpret a phenomena in the desired model. It can be assigned to any property that are thought of as fruitful contributors to the theory. This depends on the perception of the scientist of the phenomena in question. Therefore, since theoretical models are based on a scientists interpretation of what they perceive and the analogy that is made to an already known model, models do not provide a fully reliable and accurate representation of reality. Theoretical models can further be perceived as subjective and self determined, thus the numerous debates and disagreements amongst scientists concerning more complex models. Theoretical models convey associations and implications that aren’t specifically determined and that may be transferred if a shit in paradigm occurs due to the application of a different analogy to the phenomena. Additional developments and modifications may be proposed.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"A metaphor proposes analogies between the familiar context of a word and a new context into which it is introduced †. Models can be compared to metaphors due their similar property of open-endedness. Max Black said that ‘It may help us to notice what would otherwise be overlooked and to shift the relative emphasis attached to details in short, to see new connections.† A model suggests new ways of perceiving a situation that presents problems by transferring some of the features of another given situation that is fully understood. The implications implied by the use of a metaphor to refer to a model is not merely subjective as it is employed by the majority of a community using a language. For instance, the use of an analogy that might not have been essential to the formulation of the model could potentially influence the development of the paradigm. Science, most often doesn’t recognize the line separating theoretical language from observational language; the distinction is relative to the situation and depends on the context. A close parallel between the interaction of metaphorical language and literal language can be made, there is a lack of division line between the two. ‘Billiard-ball model’ incites one to think about the whole kinetic gas model as a pool table and the movement of billiard balls. The term was initially introduced as an analogy to visualize a non ‘touchable’ matter. The metaphor has now become a standard reference and is often used to teach with in education. Metaphors, like models, have the potential to extend language and influence the literal recordings of facts and therefore create new meanings. Since the new meanings are based on analogies from the start, they could have distorted the reality of the model to a great extent, providing a less accurate representation. A metaphor evokes emotional responses whereas a scientific model was designed to be systematically developed, specifying the positive and negative analogy although the neutral analogy is open ended and leaves spaced for further interpretation. Furthermore, a scientific model leads to a testable theory. Nevertheless, the similarities between metaphors and models are significant enough to illustrate the importance of imagining analogies. Metaphors aren’t literally true, although, according to Wheelwright, they do â€Å"say something, however tentatively and obliquely, about the nature of what is†. Metaphors help illustrate a model by drawing a direct comparison between the phenomena that is desired to be represented with an analogy that is already existent in our world, defined, explained and understood. The ‘double-helix’ model of the DNA molecules in biology is also considered as a theoretical model, but that one specifically is closer to observational evidence that can be collected in a lab and can therefore be literally taken. Nevertheless, even in this theoretical model, only a defined number of aspects that compose world are brought into prominence, while a few more are neglected. For instance, the model exhibits the spatial relationships between the DNA components but doesn’t take account of the character of the existing bonds between them. In conclusion, models are used in various manner in science. They serve different functions among which you may find practical and theoretical. Theoretical models are innovative mental constructions based on imagination, perception and the ability to relate to already existing models. They end up in a combination of analogies that are usually open-ended and leave space for further development and possibility for shifts in interpretation. Models are usually taken very seriously but not literarily as they are only simplistic representations of complex phenomena. They can’t be defined as pictures of reality nor useful fictions, rather as inadequate and partial manners of imagining and creating what is not observable – in theoretical models.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

English Verb Tense Resources

English Verb Tense Resources Learning verb tenses is one of the most important tasks in any language learning. There are a number of resources at the site that will help you learn tense rules, practice using verbs in different tenses, read sample sentences in a variety of tenses, teach tenses in class, and more. For an overview of conjugation of all these tenses, use the tense tables or the visual guide to tenses for reference. Teachers can use theses guides on how to teach tenses for further activities and lesson plans in class Tense Use Rules and Explanations These explanation resources provide the rules for each tense, as well as examples of proper tense use. Use the time expression commonly used with the tense, as well as the example sentences to help you get started. Present Simple Every day - When do you get up? / Tom usually eats lunch at home.Present Continuous Now - Shes watching TV at the moment. / Im not working, Im reading a newspaper.Past Simple Yesterday - They went on vacation last July. / Where did you meet Tim?Past Continuous Yesterday, at X oclock They were watching TV at 5 oclock yesterday. / What were you doing when he came home?Present Perfect Since / For - Ive lived here a long time. / Have you ever seen that film?Past Simple vs. Present Perfect Ive lived here for many years. vs. I lived there before I moved to New York.Present Perfect Continuous Since / For Time - Weve been working since 8 this morning. / What has she been doing recently?Past Perfect Already - They had already eaten when she arrived. / Had you finished the report by the time he asked for it?Future with Will Tomorrow, Next week - Well get together next week. / Will you be able to come tomorrow?Future with Going to Tomorrow, Next year, semester, etc. - Theyre goi ng to study Russian next semester. / Where are you going to stay?Future Perfect By, By the time - Ill have finished by the time he arrives. / Will you have done the work by six?Future Continuous At X oclock, This time next year, month, week / What will you be doing this time next year? - Shell be working tomorrow at 10 oclock.Conditional Forms If questions - What would you do if you had enough time? / If she is in town, shell come to the meeting.Alternate Conditional FormsModal Forms Asking Permission, Giving Advice, etc. - May I help you? / He should see a doctor.Modal Verbs of Probability Stating guesses - He must have stayed at home today. / She might be downstairs. Tense Use Rules For Beginners These tense explanations cover basic tenses and are especially for beginners. They include easier English as well as example dialogues of tense use. Present SimplePast SimplePresent PerfectFuture with WillFuture with Going toModal Form Basics Tense Quizzes Once you understand the tense use, these quizzes will help you test your knowledge. The more you practice, the more confident you will feel using various tenses. Past Tenses ReviewSimple Past or Present PerfectPresent Perfect or Present Perfect ContinuousAdvanced Tense IdentificationConditional FormsPassive Forms Quiz Tense Review If you have a good understanding of tense use, these pages will help you review tenses as they relate to each other. The resources include a tense timeline, and a special section focusing on auxiliary verbs - the key to verb conjugation. English Tenses TimelinePresent Tense Auxiliary VerbsPast Tense Auxiliary VerbsFuture Tense Auxiliary VerbsSimple vs. Progressive VerbsExample Sentences in All Tenses Tense Use Lessons These lesson plans can be used in your classes. Each lesson plan includes an introduction, a step by step guideline to teaching tense use, and class exercises to be used during the lesson. A Difficult Situation: Using Modal Verbs of Probability in the PastA VIP - Present Perfect Simple and Continuous Lesson PlanConditional StatementsIntegrating Past ContinuousPassive VoiceTense ReviewTime Expressions and Simple Past or Present PerfectReported Speech: Developing Production SkillsTense Review for Advanced Levels

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Euthanasia in the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Euthanasia in the United States - Essay Example It is vital that the health professionals understand the cultural, legal, and ethical climate that may allow, forbid, or dictate the use of what is commonly called euthanasia. For the purposes of this discussion, euthanasia is in context with patients that are terminally ill, have a poor prognosis, a very limited life span, in palliative care, and are suffering due to a low quality of life or intense pain. While euthanasia is a generic term often used by the public, it requires further definition. Voluntary euthanasia is done at the patient's request, while non-voluntary is committed when the patient may be incompetent to make the decision or in a comatose state and the decision is made by a surrogate (Cohen et al. 1099). Withholding treatment that could sustain life is a form of euthanasia, and may come at the request of a patient, a surrogate, a physician, or a medical review board (Cohen et al 1099). Terminal sedation is, "the practice of sedating a terminally ill competent patient to the point of unconsciousness, then allowing the patient to die of her disease, starvation, or dehydration" (Braddock and Tonelli). Physician assisted suicide (PSA) is the prescribing of a lethal dose of drugs with the knowledge that the patient intends to commit suicide (Cohen et al. 1099). Each form of euthanasia carries its own legal ramifications and is governed by its own set of ethical considerations. While Belgium and the Netherlands in the European Union have enacted laws that permit euthanasia in a well-regulated setting, in the United States it is generally forbidden. From a legal standpoint, voluntary euthanasia (suicide) is allowed in only four states due to "neither statutory nor common law prohibitions against suicide" (Darr Part II 33-34). Non-voluntary euthanasia is outlawed in all fifty states and would fall under the statutes that prohibit murder (Cohen et al. 1099). While these forms of euthanasia are against the law in most US jurisdictions, other forms may be permitted in special situations. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) is a topic that has gained wider discussion in recent years as medical treatments may prolong a person's life, but are unable to add to the quality of life. PAS came to the public's attention when Dr. Kervorkian admitted to assisting suicide in as many as 130 separate cases (Darr Part II 32). According to Darr Part II, "All his assisted suicides occurred in Michigan, which initially had no law banning it" (31). Michigan subsequently passed a law, but Dr Kervorkian continued the practice. He was eventually sentenced for murder and after exhausting his appeals the US Supreme Court denied his writ for certiorari in 2002 (Darr Part II 32). However, these actions opened the door for states to create legislation that would permit PAS. Currently only Oregon has a law that permits PAS. In Texas, PAS is governed under section 22.08 of the state penal code that states if, "the actor's conduct causes suicide or attempted suicide that results in serious bodily in jury" it is considered a jail felony (Chapter 22). The argument over PAS has been, and continues to be, controversial. Kervorkian's argument was predicated upon Roe v. Wade on the basis of individual autonomy and the right

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Protecting the House of Under Armour Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Protecting the House of Under Armour - Article Example Kraft and Lee involve an evaluation of the company’s dealings in its bid to ensure success upon its product portfolio. Findings from the article indicate that the company engaged on production with a capital base amounting to $310,000 after Kevin Plank realized the need to enhance sports through manufacturing the ideal wears for each sports activity. The authors account on the initial capital base of the company as sourced from three bodies for example, $20,000 from private equity, $30,000 from borrowed finances, and $250,000 loan for small business enterprises. Eventually, the article establishes that the founders’ zeal propelled the success of the company to reach its goals in becoming a competent producer of sports equipment. Despite the variations of managing the Under Armour products to become a brand, the company’s successes remain interrelated to the strategic involvement and the indulged passion of Kevin Plank in his quest to facilitate sports. The articl e articulates that the company’s focus on the current culture, the target market share, and the involvement in brand placement are the constituent propellants to its success. The two authors successfully ascertain that the engaged programs guaranteed Under Armour to acquire its current market share and beneficial outcomes. CRITIQUE Protecting the house of under armour The article’s title, â€Å"Protecting the house of Under Armour† seeks to analyze the Under Armour brand management beginning from the initial foundation to the current state of the company. Kraft and Lee authored the article purporting to enable readers derive necessary knowledge concerning the development of products and protection of brands. The article establishes that Kevin Plank’s initial intention emanated from the urge and desire to manufacture athletes’ wears that suited their psychological and physical purposes. The article’s title entails protection of a house of und er armour. However, the article contains managerial and production activities of the Under Armour brand (Kraft and Lee, 2009, p, 113). This is a distractive course taken upon by the authors since the readers find it confusing since they have to understand the correlations of protecting and managing the brand. After the title of the article, the authors directly address the issue of the initial manufacturing processing and sourcing of capital under a subtopic named building the house. Normally, the reader would expect to read the abstract of the article in order to be certain of the context and relevance. The authors fail to acknowledge the salient need of the introduction as they engage on establishing various subtopics, which tend to be independent from each other (Kraft and Lee, 2009, p, 115). Arguably, the method of writing tends to be ill since the avoidance of introduction serves as a deception for the reader lacks an overview of the items contains in the article. The article a ccounts on Kevin’s resolutions to establish a longtime remedy to the problems that befell athletes during sports. Kraft and Lee establish the founder who is also the company’s head embarked on the production plan to help his teammates after realizing the psychological discomfort they all experienced from their sportswear. However, the article fails to account on the founder’

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Governments should control what kind of content reaches their Essay

Governments should control what kind of content reaches their populations through the media because they are responsible for pro - Essay Example The Communist concept proposed by Lenin states that mass media should aim at nation building by publishing news relating to the entire society's policies and goals as determined by the government. The third concept called Development concept is applied mainly to underdeveloped countries that are lacking in media and other technological resources.  Whichever is the mode of control, the censoring mechanism by government acts as an effective control and monitoring for the media and is an indispensable component of a successful democracy. (Martin, 1983) Ensuring Authenticity of Information The media, sometimes, promotes and spreads lies, defamations and gossip. There are too many newspapers and news-channels that have made it their routine affair to gossip and spread rumours about persons who always tend to occupy the centre-stage of public’s attention - whether it's a sportsperson, a film star or a politician. The government should make it a point to ensure that every matter th at is printed and circulated is actually newsworthy, as accurate as possible and not malicious or biased. Some of us might be of the view that a censored state would mean no free speech. But is the right to free speech synonymous to the right to publish lies? The answer would be a NO. Hence it is clearly necessary that whatever is published is sensible and non-offensive.Freedom of speech may apparently seem to be an issue at hand, but the more critical issue here is integrity. Censorship not only ensures that that the media activities adhere to the principles of humanity but also conceals the sensitive issues until it is the right time to reveal them. Currently, there are lots of irresponsible media agencies and journalists offering and spreading around their own interpretation of the situation, even though it is wrong. This often causes harm to reputation and even lives. But censorship enables the information to be verified before it is put in front of the masses. The government is needed to censor the media to protect the people, the media and the international community. Restricting Negative Impact on Children Children in the modern world grow up experiencing the impact of media in all spheres of their life. If the media conveys to them false notions and fabricated ideas regarding life and society, they will begin to expect something that society really isn't. They will go out to the world behaving like what they see their favourite characters doing on television, in video games and in movies. Our children could also begin to idolize the celebrities, more show than substance, whom the media figuratively worship and publicise for their own business gains. The acts of such celebrities on the big screen promote malpractices among the teenagers such as abusing drugs, spoiling relationships, committing crimes and getting involved in unethical and immoral activities. Hence, some selective content should be filtered before it is passed down to be viewed by general public as not only children, but a lot of adults are also not able to steer their own opinions and end up getting negatively influenced by the media. Children are the building blocks of a nation. But children growing up under the influence of misleading media will lead to demotion of the society rather than promoting and contributing to the success of society. So it is

Friday, November 15, 2019

Managing And Leading Change

Managing And Leading Change Ashland Case Study Assignment Company background Ashland Inc is a Fortune 500 and Standard and Poors (SP) Midcap 400 company, providing specialised chemical, technologies and insights through Ashland Aqualon Functional Ingredients, Ashland Hercules Waters Technologies, Ashland Performance Materials, Ashland Consumer Markets (Valvoline) and Ashland Distribution. The firm has operations in more than 100 countries worldwide. In 2010 the companys revenue equated to $9bn, but its beginnings in 1924 were far more humble and it has   been though many changes since it was founded in 1924 as part of the refining arm of the Swiss Oil company, and it was then known as the Ashland Refining Company. The company takes its name after the town of its inception, namely Ashland, Kentucky in the United States. In 1936 both companies merged and Ashland General Manager, Paul G. Blazer, became the newly merged companys president and the company achieved $4.8m in sales, and by the entry of the United States into the Second World War they had grown to $12m. During the period a new refinery is built at Catlettsburg to produce aviation fuel. After the war the Ashland brand is developed, and products are sold under the companys name. This enables sales to further rise to $20.4m, and the company makes further strides in 1950 by acquiring the Freedom-Valvoline Oil Company and the contributed to a further boost to sales by 900 per cent. By 1959 the Valvoline brand had begun to reach the top of the lubricants world, thanks to an increase in the firms growing workforce, advertising campaigns, investments in infrastructure and it is highly featured in motorsport to this day. The growth in its petro-chemicals business led to further growth, leading to the acquisition of R.J Brown of St. Louis, Montana and sales grew to $280m. However, in 1966 the company diversified and it purchased Warren Brothers and Ashland Paving And Construction Inc. was born. The firms sales reached $699 million as a result of this acquisition. Furthermore the company continued to evolve during the 1960s with the acquisition of ADM Chemical Group and the formation of Ashland Chemical, making Ashland a leading chemical supplier. In 1969 Ashland Petroleum was formed, a year after the company had reached the milestone of having achieved an annual revenue of $1bn. However, the company further diversified and it enters into the coal-extraction market with the launch of the Arch-Mineral joint venture.   The following year the companys name is changed further to gaining shareholders support, and it became Ashland Oil. It also purchases a refinery, adding the SuperAmerica petrol station and convenience store chain to its holdings. The next milestone appears in 1986 with the establishment of Valvoline Instant Oil Change, which provided a service for lubricating vehicles across 70 units. Since then it has become the second-largest franchised quick lubrication business in the US, and it can be found at 870 locations. The table below, according to the company, shows its other important milestones: Year Event 1992 Ashland acquires most of Unocals chemical distribution business, becoming North Americas leading distributor of chemicals and solvents 1994 Zerex vehicle antifreeze and coolant, the No. 2 brand in the U.S., is added to the Valvoline product line-up. Sales reach $10.3 billion. 1995 Shareholders approve changing the companys name to Ashland Inc. to better reflect our diverse operations. This same year, more than $368 million is invested in 14 acquisitions to strengthen related energy and chemical businesses. 1998 Ashland and Marathon Oil merge their petroleum refining and marketing assets into a joint venture. Eagle One auto appearance products join the Valvoline brand line-up. 1999 Ashland celebrates its 75th anniversary. The company relocates its headquarters from Ashland, Ky., USA, to Covington, Ky., USA, adjacent to Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. 2002 Ashland introduces Envirez resin, the first commercially available unsaturated polyester resin containing a significant quantity of renewable materials. 2004 Ashland reorganizes into two sectors, Chemical and Transportation Construction. This lays the foundation for the companys transformation into a global specialty chemical company. 2005 Ashland divests its joint-venture oil and refining business to partner Marathon Oil, and also acquires Car Brite, a leading marketer of professional auto reconditioning products. Sales are $9.3 billion. 2006 The transformation into a specialty chemical company continues. Northwest Coatings, a technical leader in the development of innovative Waters-based and energy-curable adhesives and coatings, is acquired and Ashland Paving And Construction, Inc. is sold. 2008 Ashland acquires Hercules Incorporated in a $3.3-billion transaction. The deal moves us into the top tier of global specialty chemical companies. 2009 The Nanjing Technical Center opens in China. The applications lab supports customers in the coatings, construction, energy, food, personal care and industrial specialties markets. Sales reach $8.1 billion. 2010 Natrosol hydroxyethylcellulose rolls off the line at a new plant in Nanjing, China. Ashland launches a global joint venture in foundry chemicals with Sà ¼d-Chemie AG and announces plans to sell Ashland Distribution in 2011. 2011 Ashland and our people continue to set the standard for good chemistry and all of the great things it creates around the world. Table data source: Ashland Inc. Ashland vision, mission, values and operating principles The firm aims to be a leading global specialised chemical company by inspiring and engaging with its employees and adding value to everything it does. The company describes its mission as follows: â€Å"We satisfy our customers by delivering results through quality chemical products and services. Our desire to grow drives our passion to win in the marketplace. With a unified, low-cost operating structure, well remain competitive across every business and in every geographic region.† The following are its values and operating principles: Our Values: Who we are We act with integrity and honesty. We focus on customer and shareholder success and compete to win. We recognize each person for the difference he or she makes. We drive innovation and results by understanding the market and its opportunities. We are committed to the values of responsibility, sustainability and transparency. We create safe and health-conscious work environments, require compliance and embrace environmental stewardship. Our Operating Principles: How it happens We operate in compliance with the law and adhere to high ethical standards. We assess the impact on customers and society when making decisions. We are externally focused. Our businesses are defined by markets. We are process-centred. Our processes are designed to optimize global performance. Ashland leaders are first responsible to Ashland and second to a business, resource group or process. We are led by an Executive Committee that enforces our principles, sets our strategy and manages our capital. We are united by our common vision, mission, values and operating principles. Case Study Background Ashland Incs earnings were off track in 2002. The company was also troubled by high levels of redundancy and operating costs throughout its business groups. The annual net results were also lower than the companys share value. Even though the company has evidently gone through a number of transformations and evolutions since 1924, the vice-president of HR at the time felt that the firms troubles because it had turned it into a change-averse organisation. There was apparently no desire for change, and this person felt that as a company they didnt do it well. Doing something different was thought of as change. Between 1998 and 2003 Ashland had gone through a resource group restructuring exercise, relocated its head office, sold its oil exploration business, and it engaged in marketing and refining joint ventures. Dwight King, Ashland Chemicals President for HR, said that there was a lot of rubble left behind, which led to unwanted turnover and reductions in performance. â€Å"As our previous VP of HR would say, a lot of wreckage results from somehow not executing our plans correctly†, he said before explaining that the elements of a previous failure were impacting severely on the business. There was also a new and critical project on the table, and the leadership team recognised that they were not being very efficient due to a lacking of understanding of what it means to be change leaders.   Dwight therefore felt that he was about to watch another car accident occur. What was missing was not the what and why, but the how to change the organisation for the better. So in 2003 the firms senior executives recognised that they hadnt changed direction as well as they could have done. So the organisation was nearly broken when the company tried to implement its first Enterprise Resource Planning system in its distribution unit, and this led to a shut down of west coast operations. The implementation hadnt gone as well as everyone had expected. Change was therefore vital, and so Dwight initiated a change management programme. The company needed to build change into the organisation as a competency. The objectives were to ‘retro-fit several of its major initiatives to a change management methodology, integrate project and change management, to create a training curriculum and to build competencies within the following groups: managers, supervisors, practitioners, intact project teams and employees. He recognised that this had to start from the top of the organisation, and so he arranged an executive briefing with all of the firms business unit presidents. He succeeded in gaining sponsorship for his initiative at the meeting. The programmes focused on HR, project managers and the distribution leadership team. By 2005 this had created tremendous momentum, including the adoption of change management terminologies and a new change management approach. However, the first investments in change occurred in 2004 when Dwight facilitated a conversation with the chemical sector leadership team. He asked them a number of questions to find out where the company should be in five years time, and what it should look like. The discussion also analysed, from that particular hypothetical perspective, how the company got there, and what they would have to do to arrive at their perceived ‘destination. There was also some in-depth discussion about the obstacles theyd face and how they would overcome them. The SAP implementation moved forward too. It was now fully implemented, and Ashland formed its GlobalOne project team for SAP to begin a worldwide roll-out. Dwight convinced the SAP project manager that he needed to include a change management element in its deployment. In fact he said that ‘change needed to go well beyond that which was defined by the SAP consultants. â€Å"There were plenty of people who gave lip-service to the word ‘change, including the consultants, two of the largest consulting firms in the world†, said Dwight. He added that their idea of change involved â€Å"documenting the new physical competencies of change around what new buttons you had to push, what new levers you had to pull, what new screens you were seeing in order to enter or bill an order, or service an account.† There was no understanding about the resistance that would be created by any change programme implementation; their views didnt even consider the creation of a body of knowledge about expectations and then reinforcing them through training. This meant that there would need to be some systems training in place, and so a change management consultant was hired for the GlobalOne team. Previously they had implemented SAP Global One in Canada, and even though there was a good change management plan in place, some issues arose. The trouble was that the assets were only there for just two weeks, and then the team left to implement it in the US. Out of this situation came the realisation that you need a dedicated change management structure within the project to make sure that it succeeds. It was also recognised that certain people were needed in order to be responsible for the change effort. Around the same period the company implemented an organisation-wide rewards scheme, called Total Rewards, which redesigned the firms salary and incentive schemes. This migrated the company to a single incentive scheme. Previously each group had had their own. Ashlands CEO and Board Chairman, Jim OBrien, was introduced to the change leadership tools, and he used them to identify the champions within the company. Working collaboratively with HR and Communications he developed a strategy to target the change sponsors. â€Å"It went incredibly well†, said Dwight before adding that it was â€Å"fraught with potential landmines and we missed most of them, so Jim, our CEO, became an advocate for change competency.† They also adopted a change management methodology and 150 people attended a workshop. The companys distribution managers and projects leaders, upon participating in the workshops, thought that they had at last struck on what change was all about. Subsequently this marked a change in Ashlands deployment strategy. There was no longer a requirement to apply change management to one project at a time. An enterprise-wide approach was sanctioned by OBrien instead, and he selected Hank Waters to be the Ashland Enterprise Change Management Executive sponsor. Dwight King and Hank Waters then set about creating an organisational structure and identified key players within the ECM Deployment Team. The ECM Deployment Team was created in May 2006, and it began to implement the change management programme across the company from this point. While Hank Waters was at its leader, the team also included Pam Yost, Carol Chistobek, Jerry Prochko, Lisa Ireland, Mark Lambeth, Stacy Dunbar and Vondar Melton. An ECM Steering Committee was also formed to provide oversight for the ECM Deployment team, and it became an important catalyst for driving change further into the organisation. Two members of the team also undertook a course to become change management trainers in a change management methodology. The Steering Committee included heads of HR, Corporate Communications, IT, EHS and two business unit leaders. Its purpose was to provide direction to the change management programme. Together they achieved substantial change between 2003 and 2008, and the company made significantly more inroads than it had done previously to achieve their vision to construct a platform for growth. This exercise was repeated across the globe, and it was helped when a former business unit head and a member of the ECM steering committee, Peter Rijneveldshoek, became president of Ashland Europe. He requested that all members of the 200 plus European management team attend change management training in preparation for the SAP implementation. Dwight says that the company lost momentum at one point due to moving a key executive from change management deployment over to Ashlands Waters division, but the aim was to make change part of the organisations DNA. Therefore European project leaders were also required to undergo change management training. However, this was more embedded in the US more than in Europe. The training also occurred with project managers in China. In April 2007 a series of assessments were conducted, and there were also a number of professional development sessions held with the 12 members of the Operating Committee and the CEO. The aim of the assessments was to help the senior executives to understand the true meaning behind sponsorship of change, and it gave them an insight into how they were fulfilling their roles. Coaching sessions followed these ones, and sponsorship development roadmaps were created to enable the leadership team to develop their skills as sponsors of the change management programme. The project was deemed to be successful with 95% of the participants in a survey about the change management programme reporting that the training and tools helped them to provide support for their employees during the SAP EMEA implementation. An online training course was also provided, and 331 employees took part in it. Again 96% agreed strongly or just agreed that the course had been worth the time it took to take it. However, at one point it was felt that the ECM team required another 6-12 months to ensure that 90% of the organisation would be more change-ready. Problems arose due to members of the team being moved to more permanent roles within other parts of the organisation. Nevertheless, change became more part of Ashlands dictionary than it was previously, and more awareness of what change means was created. TASK: You are a change management consultant whose been asked to come into Ashland to assess the companys change programmes. Critically analyse and evaluate the success of the programme mentioned in the case study, consider other approaches that the firm could have taken, and think about what recommendations for change youd make for 2011 onwards based on the your knowledge of the companys history and previous change management efforts. Use the information contained in the case study, plus further primary and secondary research to form your assessment of Ashlands future strategic direction and explain how it will need to adopt new change management programmes. Consider all of the aspects of Managing and Leading Change that were discussed in your lectures, including the theoretical models and approaches to managing, leading and implementing change within an organisation. Compare your approach to the one taken by Ashland between 2003 and 2008, and explain how you would measure the success of your change management programme. For example, which metrics should Ashland be using to assess the success of its change programmes?

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

PBGC Company Profile Essay

PBGC is an abbreviation of a Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. The purpose of this federal corporation is to protect American’s pension. Its mission is related to protection: Forty four million American workers retirement income is currently being protected in more than 30000 benefit pension plans of private single-employer and multiemployer. Its formation is the result of an act of 1974 by the name Employee Retirement Income Security Act. It has the following objectives: First It helps private-sector define benefit pension plans to be continued and remain well maintained. Second is to provide pension benefits payment time to time, without any interruption. Its third objective is to keep minimum pension insurance premiums. The defined benefit pension plan gives pension on a monthly basis to the retirees but the pension amount is depended upon the salary and the year of services the retirees have rendered. The corporation does not only give monthly payments to retirees up to the guaranteed maximum but also the multiemployer plans participants and one who have not retired yet get financial assistance from it. General Tax Revenues don’t give any kind of fund to this corporation. Insurance premiums financed the operations of this federal corporation which was being set by Congress. Insurance premium is being paid by the sponsors defined for each benefit plan that are basically employers. The recoveries are being made from the companies which would be responsible for the plans in the past. Earnings come from investments for this corporation. According to the plan ended in 2008, workers will get $4,312. 50 monthly when they will get retire at the age of 65. It serves the range of customer’s e. g. general public, media and so on. Board of directors including the Secretaries of Labor (Chair), Commerce and the Treasury guided the operations of PBGC. The two highest priorities of this administration is to reform the defined benefit pension system and bring improvement in retirement security. It contributed in the development of Pension Protection Act of 2006. Since PBGC has worked over the last 33 years for the protection plan of participant’s interests and also to support private pension system’s growth; millions of American workers can now think about secured retirement along with their families. Both the benefit plan and the guarantee by PBGC have made a difference in the lives of the diligent Americans. Annually about $4 million is being given by this corporation to 44 million Americans. The development of the 2006 act not only improved the status of funding of many defined benefit plans but also pension system is being strengthened. Competitive advantage: The corporation has been very effective throughout in managing change over the past few years,’ pension insurance programs have faced many unexpected challenges. The corporation also won an award of managing its work force superbly in this changing business environment. The executive director said: â€Å"We are pleased to be recognized for having the right people, processes and systems in place to manage a doubling of our customer base with no diminution in the quality of our customer service. † (www. pbgc. gov,2008). It was being a first federal agency which got the full certification for its executive evaluation system. It got plenty of awards presented in magazines. These are as under: General Excellence, Service, Competitive Advantage, Global Outlook, Innovation, Managing Change, Financial Impact, Partnership, Ethical Practice and Vision. Weaknesses of PBGC: Weaknesses of PBGC’s certification and accreditation (C&A): This would impact the accuracy and completion of information which would affect the credibility of the corporation. It also affects the capability of the corporation to take and manage risks. It compromises agency’s personnel and assets too. There should be an effective C&A system to assure security of assets, personnel and operations and that could assure that the corporation is capable enough to meet its functional requirements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-37, Accreditation of Federal Information Systems and Guide for the Security Certification provides the framework under 2002 act named as the Federal Information Security Management Act, Public Law 107-347, for how C&A program of this corporation should be implemented. Inadequate security policy and plan: The security policy and plan of the current information of PBGC are not according to the guidance provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology Special (NIST) under Federal Information Security Management Act. NIST has developed guidance and standards. It also includes minimum requirement to provide sufficient security of information for all agency assets and operations Change in organizational structure: In 2006 the reorganization of the OIT i. e. ffice of information technology had badly affected the Information System Security Officer’s ability to ensure appropriate operational security for PBGC’s information system. It affected the clarity for officer in terms of his responsibilities and accountability. It made it hard for the officer to establish security standards and procedures. Internal control weaknesses: High risk is being involved in the PBGC’s single-employer pension insurance program. The program had an accumulated deficit of $5. 4 billion in 2003 which was the largest one in history of the corporation. Under funding also increased dramatically in private pension system. The deficit was due to the following reasons: bankrupt firm’s under funded pension plans were ceased, there was a drawback in funding rules, stock market and interest rates decline, companies went global and economy is turned into knowledge based economy. The company had taken steps to improve the internal control for premiums. This is being done for two reasons. First Safeguard of assets: controls must be establish to ensure that cost and obligation are according to the law applicable and assets are safeguarded against any loss or related factors. Second reason is Financial Reporting: it is to ensure that proper reporting is being done of all the revenues and expenditures so that documentation and reports can be made and are accurate. Data Quality Weaknesses: Incorrect data entry, adjustments, and system-generated balances generate errors. Because of the data quality issue, the corporation is unable to ensure the accuracy and completeness of premium data by utilizing Past Due Filing Notices and Statements of Account. The 1st one used to notify plans which had not yet submitted premium filings and 2nd one is used to ensure that underpaid/overpaid premiums from a plan sponsor could be sort out effectively. During auditing it was being noticed that these two tools are not being used timely as it requires significant resources before mailing. Due to this, premiums could not be collected and errors could not be detected. Additionally policies and procedures have not been documented, communicated, or implemented throughout PBGC which is related to the premium accounting cycle. www. pbgc. gov,2008). Business Strategy: The new investment strategy is being formulated to balance risk and return and to improve chances of reaching full funding over the long run. According to this strategy diversified set of fixed-income investments and diversified equity investments both will be given 45% of its assets each and 10% will be given to alternative investment. Financial Information: A deficit of $18. 1 billion was being posted by insurance program for single-employer pension plans in fiscal year 2006. Due to the airline relief provisions in the Pension Protection Act, the corporation managed to reduce its probable liabilities. This led to a $4. 7 billion net improvement. It announces maximum insurance benefit for 2009. The amount would be higher for those who retire later and vise versa. The corporation had a peak year in 2000 when they had a surplus of $10 billion almost which was followed by surplus of $8 billion in 2001. The corporation got the calls in order to stop charging premiums. It got around $9 billion claims in 2002. The claims were because of airline and steel industry. (www. soa. org, n. d. ).

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Realization from the film Muriel’s Wedding

Muriel’s wedding is a tragic-comedy film written and directed by P.J Hogan. This Australian film conveys various aspects related with change.   The main concepts of change seen from this movie are change in perspective and in attitude within the persona, ensuing from the understanding of whom you are and how to get there. Muriel's wedding reveals these concepts through Muriel's discovery of herself, and realizing that real life still continue to possess different trials that needs be overcome in order to achieve real growth. Muriel Heslop, a hopeless romantic, overweight girl who lives in Porpoise Spit, Australia, with her parents and four siblings. Muriel lives her life in the fantasy world of Abba song and dreaming about getting married. She thinks that getting married is the best way for her to find the perfect happiness. Muriel's character is not that positive. She has a low self-esteem and she looks herself as useless being. She lies, she steals and even tries to change her own identity, but in the end, she realized that all the things she had done would not give her the happiness her looking for. Muriel life in Porpoise Spit is miserable. Her relationship to her family is quite undesirable. Bill Heslop, Muriel’s father, is a corrupt politician who is completely despicable man. He always tries to impress people with his connection and still manage to find his time to degrade his family. His slogan â€Å"You Can't Stop Progress† but he manages to stop the progress of everyone in his family, by labeling them as useless and embarrassment, except for Muriel. On the other side, Betty, Muriel’ mother, a painstakingly frightened woman who is treated by her children l and husband like a slave. Like Muriel, her mother was also arrested for stealing. Betty looked to be very lonely and unattached to reality herself because she gets all the blame from Muriel’s father for Muriel stealing their money. Betty died, a speculated suicide, after Muriel’s father wants to have a divorce to live with someone he is having an affair. Both Muriel and her mother appeared to have a lot in common as far as the ability to separate their selves from reality. Another major character in the film was Rhoda, an old friend of Muriel from school that she meets on the trip. They both to get along with each other, then, Muriel realized that now she has more confident in herself and found someone who can call her a real friend. Rhoda has her own problem, she has a cancer and confined on a wheelchair and having her own crisis identity. Although Muriel and Rhoda are always having fun, still Muriel is unhappy because she really thinks that getting married will give her the prefect happiness. So, with the help of Rhoda, Muriel change her identity by changing her name to Mariel. Then, eventually, she got married to an Olympic swimmer who only needs to have an Australian passport. Muriel think that she got the best option because she thinks that she’s hitting a bird in one stone, living in her fantasy of being a bride and wife and at the same time getting money to pay her father back. This perception of Muriel is like a â€Å"falsification of view†; that being a wife is all that she needs because her parents will also be happy, and at the same time, she can live her friend. But when Muriel’s mother died, she came into realization that everything she’ve done really doesn’t give her the happiness she is looking for. She also realized that she never loved her husband at all. She wants to stop lying. She don’t want to â€Å"Mariel† anymore which she created when she was in Sydney. She ended up finding again her happiness in Sydney by helping her friend, Rhoda. She too helped her father realize the mistakes he had made with them. All these she did through discovering her identity (happiness). She no longer needed to be â€Å"Mariel†, Muriel found herself, Muriel. She was always there inside herself not knowing she was inside because she was just too busy looking inside of her fantasy world. Reference: Ebert, Roger.Muriel’s Wedding.March,1995.   

Friday, November 8, 2019

Cell Permeability essays

Cell Permeability essays Most cells are freely permeable to water that diffuses through aquaporins (water channels) in the selectively permeable plasma membrane. This movement of water is termed osmosis and occurs in response to an osmotic pressure gradient across the cell membrane. The osmolality of a solution is the total concentration of particles of solute, measured by the number of osmotically active particles per kg-1 of water (Boron A solution with a higher osmolarity is hyperosmotic, and one with lower osmolarity is described as being hypoosmotic. The tonicity of a solution describes the effect of that solution on the volume of the cells suspended in it, and is sometimes referred to as the effective osmolality (Boron RBC's placed in a hypertonic solution will lose water, and shrink. This is termed crenation, where the shape of the RBC becomes shrivelled and spikey in appearance (Tortora and Derrickson, 2009). If the RBCs are placed in hypotonic solution, they swell until they are spherical in shape. Further swelling will cause rupture of th...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Summary of the Medea Tragedy by Euripides

Summary of the Medea Tragedy by Euripides The plot of the Greek poet Euripides Medea tragedy is convoluted and messy, rather like its antihero, Medea. It was first performed at the Dionysian Festival in 431 BCE, where it famously won third (last) prize against entries by Sophocles and Euphorion. In the opening scene, the nurse/narrator tells us that Medea and Jason have lived together for some time as husband and wife in Corinth, but theirs is a troubled union. Jason and Medea met at Colchis, where King Pelias had sent him to capture the magical golden fleece from Medeas father King Aaetes. Medea saw and fell in love with the handsome young hero, and so, despite her fathers desire to retain possession of the precious object, helped Jason to escape. The couple fled first Medeas Colchis, and then after Medea was instrumental in the death of King Pelias at Iolcos, fled that region, finally arriving at Corinth. Medea Is Out, Glauce Is In At the opening of the play, Medea and Jason are already the parents of two children during their life together, but their domestic arrangement is about to end. Jason and his father-in-law-to-be, Creon, tell Medea that she and her children must leave the country so that Jason may marry Creons daughter Glauce in peace. Medea is blamed for her own fate and told that if she hadnt behaved like a jealous, possessive woman, she could have remained in Corinth. Medea asks for and is granted one days reprieve, but King Creon is fearful, and rightly so. During that one days time, Medea confronts Jason. He retaliates, blaming Medeas banishment on her own temper. Medea reminds Jason of what she has sacrificed for him and what evil she has done on his behalf. She reminds him that since she is from Colchis and is, therefore, a foreigner in Greece and without a Greek mate, she will not be welcome anywhere else. Jason tells Medea that he has given her enough already, but that he will recommend her to the care of his friends (and he has many as witnessed by the gathering of the Argonauts). Jasons Friends and Medeas Family Jasons friends need not be bothered because as it turns out Aegeus of Athens arrives and agrees that Medea may find refuge with him. With her future assured, Medea turns to other matters. Medea is a witch. Jason knows this, as do Creon and Glauce, but Medea seems appeased. She presents a wedding gift to Glauce of a dress and crown, and Glauce accepts them. The theme of poisoned clothing should be familiar to those who know of  the death of Hercules. When Glauce puts on the robe it burns her flesh. Unlike Hercules, she immediately dies. Creon dies, too, trying to help his daughter. Although thus far, Medeas motives and reactions seem at least understandable, then Medea does the unspeakable. She slaughters her own two children. Her revenge comes when she witnesses Jasons horror as she flies off to Athens in the chariot of the sun god Helios (Hyperion), her ancestor.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Revolutionary Leadership in Russian Revolution and the Arab Spring Essay

Revolutionary Leadership in Russian Revolution and the Arab Spring - Essay Example To start with, the general complexity of the given cases is the reason for drawing on their similarities and differences. In fact, it is not right to comprehend all the three revolutions in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia as a general phenomenon. Moreover, it is hard to comprehend an overall process of the Russian revolution in a sketch too. Thus, it is necessary to determine the key leadership and the starting conditions of these four countries in order to provide any comparison between them. On the one hand, Anderson (2011) believes that Arab countries are different among all in terms of their economic ground and social fabric. In other words, by referring to the Arab Spring countries we consider three different in their internal environment states (Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya). For instance, the main forces for change in Tunisia were the local trade union (UGTT), lawyers, and journalists; but in Egypt, the revolution was headed by linked to the political opposition the April 6 Movement. H ence, the leadership of the Arab Spring is not the same not only in terms of concrete personalities but also in the social background of these forces. Furthermore, the key problems that encouraged these countries to change are also not the same. In the days prevailing the revolution, Tunisia was a tourist-oriented and powerful. In fact, the revolution in this country emerged as a response to the way â€Å"the Ben Ali family plundered the economy and repressed all autonomous attempts at political expressions†.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Ecological Design A strategy for business practice Dissertation - 1

Ecological Design A strategy for business practice - Dissertation Example Development of an eco design through research and subsequently incorporating the same in a business operation is the challenge faced by most companies. This general factors influencing eco design, the areas of change where eco design is applicable, the methods adopted by companies in introducing products and the manner in which an eco design is integrated with business operations form a part of this dissertation. Eco-Design is the design and development of products that are both environment friendly and economically viable. The word derives its origins from the concept of a synergy between design, economy and ecology. (Miriam Borchardt, Leonel A.C.Poltosi, Miguel A Sellito and Gianfraco M.Pereira, 2009) A design which is able to satisfy all three requirements in an effective manner is said to be a successful eco-designed product. With the world globalising at a fast rate there has been a rapid increase in the both the demand and consumption of goods. New players emerging and competin g in the global market, has put a severe strain on the available natural resources and the idea of creating a environment friendly product has been relegated to the background. The three basic issues that an eco-design addresses are (1) The new age customer is getting more information regarding the dangers of environment pollution. He is thus getting more informed regarding the choices he can make while selecting a product. Thus he is able to demand products that are safe and environment friendly which leads to a direct pressure.

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Estimate the Cost of a Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Estimate the Cost of a Project - Essay Example For each itemized activity also, a very detailed consideration is made with regards to the duration that the project members had to take to complete the activity. It is for this reason that a decomposed version of the work breakdown structure would be used. It is also important to note that before the final values of costs were reached, a comprehensive cost management plan was put in place to ensure that the final values are the best market values available. From the cost estimation, it can be seen that the present project is a high risk project in the sense that it involves a lot of cost. To mitigate the possible scenario of higher cost, it is admonished that the procurement stage, which entails the highest cost should be deprived of sole sourcing. The company ought to open up a public procurement bidding process to ensure that the company gets very good value for the project. It is also admonished that as much as possible, the company should depend on internal labor instead of external labor. This will actually go a long way to ensure that non-monetary costs are cut

Monday, October 28, 2019

Internal External Balance Essay Example for Free

Internal External Balance Essay When all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. Bernard Baruch In review of trade policy best suited for our Nation it is time for an overhaul and start developing a more complete toolbox. As Kevin Kaiser so poignantly stated in his article in CNN Money: â€Å"The economists that make the worlds crucial monetary policy decisions are the same economists who authored most textbooks in use. While superficially appealing, their theories lack empirical evidence, are riddled with internal inconsistencies, and are based upon tenuous assumptions. Specifically, their models are built on downward sloping demand curves, upward sloping supply curves, perfect competition, rational consumers, benevolent dictators, and general equilibrium; there is no dynamic analysis, no consideration of disequilibrium, and no role of private sector debt† (Kaiser, 2011). The policy cross as shown to the left indicates that as e increases m decreases, and current account improves. To offset this, an increase in g is required. The EE curve is positively sloped in the (e,g) space. An internal equilibrium is attained when the output is at the full employment level thereby raising the interest rate. Moreover, because the economy is fully employed, real output cannot increased beyond a point. Thus, an increase in inflationary pressure occurs, thereby raising domestic price, which shifts the LM curve to the left. Thus, along the IE curve, government spending and interest rate are directly related. As a Post Keynes-Industrialist, the tendency to lean towards comprehensive human market behaviors and interdependent structural issues makes developing a one-size-fits-all policy, such as the policy cross, for internal and external balance a challenge. This is particularly true when evidence for any one theory to-date has not proven to be exact and reliable. Capitalism is fickle, and doesn’t follow slopes as neatly as theorists would like and the global shocks being felt around the world are keeping the economic status of all countries anything but predictable. Paul Krugman wrote an article for The New York Times that explained, â€Å"at the heart of the profession of economics’ failure has been its emphasis on rigor, rather than relevance—that is, economics had been weakened by the desire for an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to show off their mathematical prowess. He offered two recommendations in addition to again making the case for renewed attention to Keynes: scholarship that questions the efficient-market view of the financial sector, and research that incorporates the realities of finance into macroeconomics† (Krugman, 2009). For the purposes of this paper however, it would be recommended that a floating exchange rate be proposed for the following reason: The challenge of fiscal and monetary policies to keep equilibrium could be comparative to eyeballing mass versus weight of internal and external spending and determining which is more relevant at any given time. While a cleanly floating exchange rate assures external balance, it does not assure internal balance and changes in the rate to achieve external balance may exacerbate and internal imbalance. Government monetary and fiscal policies may be used to address internal imbalances at this point with a floating rate structure. â€Å"The following graph can assist in understanding the impacts of booms and recessions on internal and external balances.†(Johnston, M. 2011). For example, the bottom left-hand shows the effects of exports being less competitive, which reduces the number of exports and induces a current account deficit and lower aggregate demand. Currently, the US has a well-known financial problem with a large trade deficit every year. â€Å"It seems many ignore this issue since our debts tend to be denominated in our domestic currency, the dollar.† (Kling, A. para 6). The most recent news release for second quarter 2012 on the Bureau of Economic Analysis states, â€Å"the US current-account deficit decreased to $117.4 billion (preliminary) in the second quarter from $133.6 billion (revised) in the first quarter. The decrease in the current-account deficit was accounted for by a decrease in the deficit on goods and an increase in the surplus on income.†(, Sept 18, 2012 ). This would indicate a small shift in the left lower quadrant just slightly contracting, but very little overall. However damning the current financial situation is, the floating exchange rate remains the better choice as argued in Global Business Today, â€Å"Under a fixed system, a country’s ability to expand or contract its money supply as it sees fit is limited by the need to maintain exchange rate parity, leading to high interest rates† (Hill, 2011). â€Å"Another reason is the because the real exchange rate fundamentals including terms of trade, import tariffs, technology progress, composition of government expenditures and revenues, real interest rate and capital controls are always in flux† (Wong, C. p. 7). When the exchange rate is flexible, in fiscal expansion either government expenditure increases or tax cuts raises output, but worsens current account balances. Conversely, fiscal contraction improves current account balances, but lowers output. If the economy attempts to attain both internal and external balance it could consider expenditure switching, but alone this will be inadequate. â€Å"For example, if an economy is at the full employment level, i.e., internal balance is already attained, but if it is running current account deficits, policy makers in the economy could devalue its currency so that net exports rise. However, the improvement of current account balances would lead the economy to experience over-heating so that internal balance would disappear. If an economy is experiencing an inflationary gap, or over-heating, while maintaining balanced current account, a revaluation policy may reduce total expenditure back to the full employment level, but lead to current account deficits† (, para 5). Therefore, changing how we currently think may be necessary to achieve both internal and external balances. Economics has been referred to the dismal science but as Kaiser states, â€Å"True sciences expand and evolve: genetics, psychology, quantum mechanics, astronomy. Economics defends itself – it is an ideology. What we need is an economic theory that is more relevant to a modern capitalist economy – one that embraces uncertainty and disequilibrium, is grounded upon realistic assumptions, is judged by the accuracy of its predictions, and where debt and money are implicit, important factors.† (CNN Money, 2011). References Hill, H. (2011). Global Business Today. New York: New York McGraw-Hill Kaiser, K. (December 16, 2011) Its time for economic theory to evolve. CNN Money. Retrieved on December 14, 2012 from Johnston, M (October 8, 2011). AS and A2 Macroeconomics: Internal and External Balances. Econofix. Retrieved on December 12, 2012 from Kling, A. (2004). The trade balance. Retrieved on December 13, 2012 from Krugman, P (2009). â€Å"How Did Economists Get It So Wrong?† The New York Times, September 2. Retrieved on December 14, 2012 from News Release: US International Transactions. Retrieved on December 14, 2012 from Wong, C-H. Adjustment and the Internal-External Balance. Retrieved on December 14, 2012 from World Economy Expenditure Changing Retrieved on December 14, 2012 from

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Ronald Reagan Essay -- essays research papers fc

Reckoning with Reagan:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ronald Reagan was more than a president. He was a phenomenon. Since he left office in 1989, many authors have tried to effectively identify who this man really was. He was an icon to some, and an enigma to others. He stood up to the worst economic, domestic, and international threats of the time and yet, took naps in the middle of cabinet meetings. At the height of his popularity in 1986, he had, as Time magazine put it, â€Å"found America's sweet spot. â€Å" Reagan had ideals of what he felt America should be like, and made it his number one goal to share his unrelenting optimism with every person in the country. He pledged to bring Americans a â€Å"little good news.† and created a strong bond with the public. Throughout his eight years in office, he continually motivated and energized his supporters while at the same time, confounded and mystified his detractors. Reagan stood tall among the thirty-nine presidents that preceded him, and was one of the most popular leaders of the twentieth century. In his book, Reckoning with Reagan, Schaller attempted to reconcile the facts and myths that surrounded Reagan during his entrance into public service, his back to back terms as governor of California, and his eight years as President of the United States. Although, he briefly outlined Reagan's earlier years as a Hollywood actor, corporate spokesperson and motivational speaker, Schaller concentrates on the presidency and how Reagan impacted America to such a degree, that it would be felt for years to come. And for the first time since Kennedy, an era would be defined by a single man: Ronald Reagan.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Though he would stop short of saying that he was born in a log cabin, Ronald Reagan grew up in humble beginnings. The son of an alcoholic father whom couldn't hold down a job and a religious mother, Reagan was encouraged at an early age by his mother to act in school plays. An activity in which the young Reagan showed much promise. Because of a difficult home life, Reagan created a distance between the reality of his troubled surroundings and the fantasy of how things should be. Many believed that such mental redirection at this early age played a big role in his vision and ideals for America years later.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After he graduated high school in 1932, Reagan went to wor... ...le of a charasmatic leader in that he remained above the fray. That ability was not so much due to his personal political saavy, but rather, the public's refusal to allow him to be portrayed in any negative light, similar to a famous movie star or professional athelete caught in a compromising situation that would spell disaster for the average citizen. Instead of public outrage, the celebrity is met with sympathy and understanding as well as an odd public comdemnation of his or her accusors. As Schaefer charasmatic authority, he defined Reagan. â€Å"Charasmatic authority is derived more from the beliefs of followers than from the actual qualities of leaders. So long as people perceive a leader as having qualities setting him or her apart from ordinary citizens, that leader's authority will remain secure and often unquestioned.† (p. 431). Bibliography   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shaller, Michael. Reckoning with Reagan: America and Its President in the 1980s. Oxford University Press: New York, 1992. Shaefer, Richard T. Sociology, Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2003

Thursday, October 24, 2019

History of the Soft Drinks Industry Essay

Introduction Soft drinks, more popularly known as sodas, are not exactly referred to as items of necessity. People can live without sodas. In fact, people might be safer if they don’t drink soft drinks so much. And yet, soft drinks somehow make it to the top of the list of items bought by the average consumer. Why is this, exactly? Well, for one thing, sodas are delicious. They stand between liquor and juice. Those who are too young to drink beer but think that fruit juice is too juvenile can order sodas. Those too old and are putting their health at risk by drinking hard drinks can enjoy soft drinks and no one would think any less of them. In short, sodas have a mass appeal. They carry an image with them; an image of a person with a comfortable lifestyle. This report will take a look at the soft drink industry as a whole and particular industry’s leaders, brief history and description of the industry; will show industry characteristics, trends, changes, and competitive factors; will give recommendations for the companies within the industry. My experience of the consumer and the seller of the soft drinks, allowed me to say, that the soft drinks industry deserves attention. It is one of the biggest, fast growing, perspective, and profitable industries in the world. It takes a big place in our life as consumers. Soft drinks, and such big companies as Coca – Cola or PepsiCo, are widely spread everywhere and available in any country in the world. I decided to choose the soft drinks industry, because it illustrates the great production and distribution; and important business innovations, such as product development, franchising, and mass marketing, as well as the evolution of consumer tastes and cultural trends. History of the soft drinks industry. The soft drink industry began in the mid-1880s with the creation of syrup that was mixed with carbonated water and served at drug store lunch counters. During the early years, soft drinks were sold only in stores that could provide fountain service. Increasing distribution was tied to building additional syrup manufacturing plants. With the advent of bottling machinery, soft drinks began to be distributed beyond the town drug store. The first bottled soda water or soft drink in the United States was produced in 1835. These drinks were called soft drinks, only to separate them from hard alcoholic drinks. This drinks do not contain alcohol and broadly specifying this beverages, includes a variety of regular carbonated soft drinks, diet and caffeine free drinks, bottled water juices, juice drinks, sport drink and even ready to drink tea or coffee packs. So we can say that soft drinks mean carbonated drinks. Charles Aderton invented â€Å"Dr Pepper† in Waco, Taxes in 1885. Dr. John S. Pemberton invented â€Å"Coca – Cola† in Atlanta, Georgia in 1886. Caleb Bradham invented â€Å"Pepsi – Cola† in 1892, and so on. Bigger and smaller companies appear on a soft drink market since the greatest profitability (advantage) and cheap manufacturing of this industry was discovered. Today, soft drink is more favorite refreshment drink in the United States then tea, coffee, juice and etc. Soft drinks industry overview in the United States and World Wide. The soft drinks industry is very big, very visible, highly concentrated, and appears to have been very profitable. The leaders of the Soft Drink Industry are the Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo, Cadbury Schweppes/Dr. Pepper Snapple, Cott Corp. , and National Beverage Corp. There is also noticeable Asian and European influence on a world market of the soft drinks. Leading companies have prominent presence in the soft drink industry. This industry is well established already, and it would be difficult for any company to enter or exit successfully. According to the Coca- Cola annual report (2009), it has the most soft drink sales with 24. 4 billion dollars. The Coca-Cola product line has several popular soft drinks including Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, Barq’s, and Sprite, selling over 400 drink brands in about 200 countries. PepsiCo is the next top competitor with soft drink sales grossing 21 billion dollars for the two beverage subsidiaries, PepsiCo Beverages North America and PepsiCo International (annual report PepsiCo Inc. , 2009). PepsiCo’s soft drink product line includes Pepsi, Mountain Dew, and Slice which make up more than one quarter of its sales. Cadbury Schweppes/Dr. Pepper Snapple had soft drink sales of 6 billion dollars with a product line consisting of soft drinks such as A&W Root Beer, Canada Dry, and Dr. Pepper (annual report Cadbury Schweppes/Dr. Pepper Snapple, 2009). Cott Corporation is one of the world’s biggest soft drinks manufacturers, but has a low profile among consumers because it specializes in producing private label products for retailers. In fact the company is largely credited with revitalizing the supermarket own-label beverage market during the early 1990s, scoring a number of important goals including the introduction of Sam’s American Choice cola by Wal-Mart and Sainsbury’s Classic Cola in the UK. Currently, its small portfolio of consumer brands includes RC Cola, Stars & Stripes and Red Rain. National Beverage Corp. (National Beverage) develops, manufactures, markets and distributes a portfolio of beverage products throughout the United States. The Company develops and sells flavored beverage products, including a selection of flavored soft drinks, juices, waters and energy drinks. Its brands include Shasta and Faygo, each of which has over 50 flavor varieties. The Company also maintains a line of flavored beverage products for the health-conscious consumer, including Everfresh, Home Juice and Mr. Pure 100% juice and juice-based products The Coca-Cola Company accounted for 26. 5% of the world’s soft drinks sales and 43 % of the US market, almost double the amount of rival PepsiCo, which holds a 13. 4 % share of the world market and 32 % of the US market. Both companies appear to be keen to extend their focus by expanding into growing segments for soft drink production. In the last month Coca-Cola has revealed it is extending began researching benefits of Chinese herbal remedies to target growing demand for nutritional benefits and functionality in their products. PepsiCo at the same time has increased its focus in production of non-carbonated beverages with juice in particular becoming important to its operations. Both companies remain significantly ahead of their rivals, reflecting the increasingly competitive nature of the soft drinks market. Cadbury Schweppes/Dr. Pepper Snapple takes 15 % of the US market and 3 % of the world market. Cott Corp takes 5 % of the US market. National Beverage Corp. takes 2% of the US market. (Table 1. â€Å"The top 10 Soft Drinks Companies in 2008 by global market share†, Page 21 and Table 1. a. â€Å"The Top 10 Soft Drinks Manufacturers in the US in 2008 by volume†, Page 21 ). At the core of the beverage industry is the carbonated soft-drink category. The dominant players in this area (Coca Cola, Pepsi, and Cadbury Schweppes/Dr. Pepper Snapple) own virtually all of the North American market’s most widely distributed and best-known brands. (Table 4 â€Å"Top Ten Soft Drinks in the US, 2009. † Page 24) They are dominant in world markets as well. These companies’ products occupy large portions of any supermarket’s shelf space, often covering more territory than real food categories like dairy products, meat, or produce. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo continued to dominate the soft drinks market in 2010 accounting for more than a third of global sales in the sector, according to market analytic. Soft drinks industry description. The market size of this industry has been changing. Soft drink consumption has a market share of 46. 8% within the non-alcoholic drink industry. (Table 2, 2. a. â€Å"Global Soft Drinks Market Segmentation: % Share, by Value, 2008†, Page 21). Total market value of soft drinks reached $367. 2 billion in 2008 with a market value forecast of $377. 1 billion by the end of 2010. In 2013, the global soft drink market is forecast to have a value of $456. 3 billion. The 2008 soft drink volume was 325,367. 2 million liters (Table 3 â€Å"Global Soft Drinks Market Volume: liters million†, Page 22). In 2013, the global soft drink market is forecast to have a volume of 474 million liters, an increase of 22. 3% since 2008. Soft drink industry is lucrative with a potential for high profits, but there are several obstacles to overcome in order to capture the market share. Carbonates sales proved the most lucrative for the global soft drink market, generating 46. 8% of the total value. However, the volume of the U. S. carbonated soft drinks declined -3% in 2009. That compares to – 2. 3% decline in 2008; a – 0. 6 % decline in 2007; and a -0. 2% decline in 2006. Top companies, Coke and Pepsi, generated similar results last year. Coke carbonated soft drinks volume was down -3. 1% and PepsiCo’s was down -4%. Both lost share. Dr. Pepper Snapple’s carbonated soft drink volume was down -1. 3%. (See below, Table 5 â€Å"Carbonated soft drink Companies in the U. S. for 2009†). In the U. S. , with the carbonated soft drinks decline accelerating, other categories are slowly growing. (For example, bottled water and energy drinks market. ) The Coca-Cola Company accounts for 22. 6% of the global soft drink market’s volume. Supermarkets and hypermarkets distribute 48. 4% of the global soft drink market’s volume. Table 5. â€Å"Carbonated soft drink Companies for 2009†. Top -10 CSD Companies in the US for 2009| 2009| 2009| 2008| | 2009| 2008| | Rank Companies| Market Share| Market Share| Share Change| Cases (millions)| Cases (millions)| Volume% Change| 1| Coca-Cola Co| 42. 7| 42. 8| -0. 1| 4107. 6| 4241. 1| -3. 10%| 2| Pepsi Co| 30. 8| 31. 1| -0. 3| 2960. 4| 3082. 8| -4. 00%| 3| Dr Pepper Snapple| 15. 3| 15| 0. 3| 1471. 2| 1491. 3| -1. 30%| 4| Cott Corp| 4. 7| 4. 8| -0. 1| 448| 476. 6| -6. 00%| 5| National Beverage| 2. 6| 2. 5| 0. 1| 247. 5| 243. 9| 1. 50%| 6| Hansen Natural| 0. 8| 0. 8| flat| 79| 76. 5| 3. 30%| 7| Red Bull| 0. 7| 0. 6| 0. 1| 67. 2| 63. 9| 5. 20%|. 8| Big Red| 0. 4| 0. 4| flat| 43. 6| 42. 4| 2. 70%| 9| Rockstar| 0. 4| 0. 4| flat| 40. 2| 41| -2. 00%| 10| Other| 1. 6| 1. 6| flat| 156. 3| 160. 3| -2. 50%| | Total Industry| 100| 100| | 9621| 9919. 8| -3. 00%| Statements of leading companies within soft drink industry of the US| | Coca – Cola Company | PepsiCo| Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. | National Beverage Corp| Cott Corp (2008) | Net operating revenue| millions $ 30. 990| 43. 232| 5. 531| thousands $ 575. 177| millions $ 1. 648| Cost of goods sold| 11. 088| 20. 099| 2. 234| 405. 322| 1. 467| GROSS PROFIT | 19. 902| 23. 133| 3. 297| 169. 855| 181|. Selling Expenses| 11. 358| 15. 026| 2. 135| 131. 918| 179. 8| OPERATING INCOME| 8. 231| 8. 044| 1. 085| 24. 742| loss 113. 0| TOTAL ASSETS| 48. 671| 39. 848| 8. 776| 265. 682| 873. 1| LIABILITIES AND EQUITY| 48. 671| 39. 848| 8. 776| 265. 682| 873. 1| OPERATING ACTIVITIES| 8. 186| 6. 796| 865| 35. 829| 66. 9| INVESTING ACTIVITIES| used in 4. 149| used in 2. 401| used in 251| used in 3. 491 | used in 54. 8| FINANSIAL ACTIVITIES| used in 2. 293| used in 2. 497| used in 554| 305| used in 19. 4 | Five Forces of the Soft Drinks Industry. ( Figure 3. â€Å"Five Forces of the Soft Drinks Industry†. Page 24). Threat of New Entrants. Significant barriers exist to entering the soft drink industry. Bottling operations have a fairly high minimum efficient scale and require fixed assets which are specific not only to the process of bottling but also to a specific type of packaging. Entering bottling, meanwhile, would require substantial capital investment, which would deter entry. Exit costs are thus also high. Bottling operations do exist which in theory could be contracted out, but they are tied up in long-term contracts with the major players and thus can only contract with other producers in a limited way. Perhaps the most significant barrier to entry, however, is the strong brand identity associated with the best-selling soft drinks. Placing another cola on the market is not an attractive value proposition. Bargaining Power of Suppliers. Suppliers to the soft drink industry are, for the most part, providing commodity products and thus have little power over the industry. Sugar, bottles and cans are homogeneous goods which can be obtained from many sources, and the aluminum can industry has been plagued by excess supply. The one necessary ingredient which is unique is the artificial sweetener; aspartame is clearly preferred by consumers of diet beverages and for a time was under patent protection and therefore only available from one supplier. However, the patent expired and another producer entered, reducing the market power of NutraSweet. For example, the inputs for Coke and Pepsi’s products were primarily sugar and packaging. Sugar could be purchased from many sources on the open market, and if sugar became too expensive, the firms could easily switch to corn syrup, as they did in the early 1980s. Bargaining Power of Customers. Buyers can be considered at the consumer or the retail level. The soft drink industry sold to consumers through five principal channels: food stores, convenience and gas, fountain, vending, and mass merchandisers, fast food restaurants. For consumers, taste will be an important part of the preference for a particular soft drink; thus although there is no monetary switching cost, there may be a loss of enjoyment associated with a less-preferred brand. Because of this, consumers have historically been brand-loyal and not based purchase decisions on price. Retail outlets have not been able to exhibit much buyer power over the industry, although they can do so more easily than consumers. Traditionally these outlets have been fragmented and have been reliant on the major soft drink brands to increase store traffic. However, at the time of the case there has already been evidence of some buyer power on the part of grocery stores, as they successfully resisted an attempt to price the varieties with more costly inputs higher. As grocery chains increasingly consolidate and as discount outlets continue to grow, buyer power on the part of retailers is likely to increase. Threat of Substitute Products. While the U. S. soft drink market was growing, substitutes did little to interfere. Soft drinks are sufficiently unique that when a consumer wants a soft drink another product is not likely to satisfy. Other cold drinks such as water, juices and iced tea offer similar refreshing qualities, yet they do not have the same taste or properties. Hot beverages and alcoholic beverages are not desirable or appropriate for many of the occasions when one would want a soft drink. The one category which threatens soft drink producers is the â€Å"new age† product which offers (or implies) more natural ingredients and/or health benefits. The soft drink industry’s initial answers to these beverages, in the form of Tab Clear and Crystal Pepsi, are not going to compete effectively with the new age products. Competitive Rivalry within an Industry. The concentration in the industry (mainly between its leaders: Coke, Pepsi and Cadbury/Schweppes) would suggest that internal rivalry is somewhat less than if there were many players of equal size. Although the competition between Coke and Pepsi has become fiercer over time, they traditionally competed primarily on advertising, promotion and new products rather than price (although the explosion of new brands did eventually lead to some price competition). The products are similar but not homogeneous and buyers are fairly brand loyal. Retail buyers have significant costs for switching from the major brands since those are responsible for bringing people into the store. Flattening and potentially declining U. S.demand may be a factor which increases internal rivalry and encourages more price competition and thus erosion of profits. Revenues are extremely concentrated in this industry, with Coke and Pepsi, together with their associated bottlers, commanding 73% of the case market. In fact, the soft drink market can be characterized as an oligopoly, or even a duopoly between Coke and Pepsi, resulting in positive economic profits. As analysis using Porter’s five forces shows that the soft drink industry is very profitable. Suppliers and buyers have not had more power over the industry than it has had over them. Internal rivalry, while seeming intense, has not eroded the profitability of the industry because of its concentration and the fact that the two major players have primarily competed on the basis of advertising and promotion and not price. Entry is difficult both for reasons of scale and the strong brand identity of the current major players. Substitutes have not been close enough to take away significant market share, although the emergence of new substitutes may pose the largest threat to the industry’s profitability. Soft drink industry has an oligopolistic character. SWOT analysis of the main producers in the soft drink industry. Coca – Cola Company. The Coca-Cola Company is the world’s leading manufacturer, distributor and marketer of Non- alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups, in the world. Coca – Cola has a strong brand name and brand portfolio. Business – Week and Interbred, branding consultancy, recognize Coca – cola as one of the leading brands in their top 100 global brands ranking in 2009. The Business Week – Interbred valued Cocoa – Cola at 67,000 million dollars in 2008. Coca – Cola ranks well ahead of its close competitor PepsiCo which has a ranking of 22 having a brand value of 12,690 million dollars. The Company’s strong brand value facilitates customer recall and allows Coca – Cola to penetrate market. However, the company is threatened by intense competition which could have an adverse impact on the company’s market share. Strengths| Weaknesses| World’s leading brand| Negative publicity| large scale of operations| Sluggish performance in North America| Robust revenue growth in three segment| Decline in cash from operating activities| Opportunities| Threats| Acquisitions Intense competition| Intense competition| Growing bottles water market| Dependence on bottling partners| Growing Hispanic population in US| Sluggish growth of carbonated beverages| Strengths. World’s leading brand: The Company owns four of the top five soft drink in the world: Coca – Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite and Fanta. Strong brands allow the company to introduce brand extensions such as Vanilla Coke, Cherry Coke and Coke with Lemon. Over the years, the company has made large investments in brands promotions. Consequently, Coca – Cola is one of the best recognized global brands. The company’s strong brand value facilitates customer recall and allows Coca – Cola to penetrate new markets and consolidate existing ones. Large scale of operations: With revenues is excess of 24 billion dollars Coca – Cola has a large scale of operation. Of the approximately 52 billon beverage servings of all types consumed worldwide every day, beverages bearing trademarks owned by or licensed to Coca – Cola account for more than 1. 4 billion. The company’s operations are supported by a strong infrastructure across the world. Coca – Cola owns and operates 32 principal beverage concentrates and/or syrups manufacturing plants located throughout the world. In addition, it owns or has interest in 37 operations with 95 principal beverage bottling and canning plants in the US. The company also owns bottled water production and still beverage facilities as well as a facility that manufactures juice concentrates. The company’s large scale of operation allows it to feed upcoming markets with relative ease and enhances its revenue generation capacity. Robust revenue growth in three segments: Coca – Cola revenues recorded a double digit growth, in tree operating segments. These tree segments are Latin America, East/South Asia, and Pacific Rim and Bottling investments. Revenues from Latin America grew by 20,4% during 2007, over 2006. During the same period, revenues from East/South Asia and Pacific Rim grew by 10. 6 % while revenues from the bottling investments segment by 19. 9%. Together, the three segments of Latin America, East/South Asia and Pacific Rim and Bottling investments, accounted for 34. 8% of total revenues during 2007. Robust revenues growth rates in these segments contributed to top-line growth for Coca – Cola during 2007. Weaknesses. Negative publicity: The company received negative publicity in India during September 2006. The company was accused by the Center of Science and Environment (CSE) of selling products containing pesticide residue. These pesticides included chemicals witch could cause cancer, damage to the nervous and reproductive systems and reduce bone menial density. Such negative publicity could adversely impact the company’s brand image and the demand for Coca- Cola products. Sluggish performance in North America: Coca – Cola’s performance in North America was far from robust. North America is Coca – Cola’s core market generating about 30 % of total revenues during 2007. Therefore, a strong performance in North America is important for the company. Sluggish performance in North America could impact the company’s future growth prospects and prevent Coca – Cola from recording a more robust top-line growth. Decline in cash from operating activities: Cash flows from operating activities decreased 7% in 2008 compared to 2007. Decline in cash from operating activities reduces availability of funds for the company’s investing and financing activities, which, in turn, increases the company’s exposure to debt markets and fluctuating interest rates. Opportunities. Acquisitions: Strong international operations increase the company’s capacity to penetrate international markets and also gives it an opportunity to diversity its revenue stream. Coca – Cola made acquisitions in Australia, New Zealand, Germany, and China for the last 3 years. These acquisitions strengthened Coca – Cola international operations. It gives Coca – Cola an opportunity for growth, through new product launch or greater penetration of existing markets. Growing bottled water market: Bottled water is one of the fastest – growing segments in the world’s food and beverage market owing to increasing health concerns. The market for bottled water in the US is forecast to reach revenues of about 19. 3 billion dollars by the end of 2010. The company’s Dasani brand water is the 3rd best-selling bottled water in US. Coca – Cola could leverage its strong position in the bottled water segment to take advantage of growing demand for flavored water. Growing Hispanic population in US: Hispanics are growing rapidly in number and economic power. As a result, they have become more important to markets than ever before. The company can benefit from an expanding Hispanic population in the US, which would translate into higher consumption of Coca – Cola products and higher revenues for the company. Threats. Intense competition: Intense competition Coca – Cola competes in the nonalcoholic beverages of the commercial industry. The company faces intense competition in various markets from regional as well as global players. Also, the company faces competition from various juice drinks and nectars. In many of the countries in which Coca – Cola operates, including the US, PepsiCo in one of the company’s primary competitor. (Other significant competitors include Nestle, Cadbury/Schweppes, Group DANONE and Kraft Foods. ) Competitive factors impacting the company’s business include pricing, advertising, sales promotion programs, product innovation. And brand and trademark development and protection. Intense competition could impact Coca – Cola market share and revenue growth rates. Dependence on bottling partners: Coca – Cola generates most of its revenues by selling concentrates and syrups to bottlers in whom it doesn’t have any ownership interest or in which it has no controlling ownership. Loss one or more of customers by any one of its major bottling partners could indirectly affect Coca – Cola business results. Such dependence on third parties is a weak link in Coca – Cola’s operations and increases the company’s business risks. Sluggish growth of carbonated beverages: US consumers have started to look for greater variety in their drinks and are becoming increasingly health conscious. This led to a decrease in the consumption of carbonated and other sweetened beverages in the US. The performance of the market is forecast to decelerate, with an anticipation compound annual rate of change of -0. 3% for the five-year period 2005-2010 expected to drive the market to a value of 62. 9 billion dollars by the end of 2010. Coca – Colas revenue could be adversely affected by a slowdown in the US carbonated beverage market. PepsiCo. In 2009 PepsiCo estimated that its annual retail sales had reached $92 billion, offering over 100 brands around the globe. The main cash cow of PepsiCo of course being the Pepsi carbonated drink that owned 10% of the US beverage market in 2008. PepsiCo offers the world’s largest portfolio of billion-dollar food and beverage brands, including 19 different product lines that each generates more than $1 billion in annual retail sales. PepsiCo mains businesses – Frito-Lay, Quaker, Pepsi-Cola, Tropicana and Gatorade – also make hundreds of other nourishing, foods and drinks. Strengths| Weaknesses| Strong core brand | Concentrated in North America . Strong market position | Health Craze will hurt soft drink | Solid brand portfolio | Negative publicity| | Strong revenue growth | | Economies of scale | | Opportunities| Threats| Food division expansion| Sluggish growth of carbonated drinks | Hispanic growth in the US | Competition with Coca-Cola & others| Bottled water growth | Declining economy/recession | Growing consumer health consciousness | | Cadbury Schweppes/Dr. Pepper Snapple. Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc. (formerly Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages) is an American soft beverages drink company, which was spun off from Britain’s Cadbury Schweppes. Company manufactures, markets and distributes more than 50 brands of carbonated soft drinks, juices, ready-to-drink teas, mixers and other premium beverages across the United States, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean. Our diverse portfolio includes Dr Pepper, Snapple, 7UP, Mott’s, A&W, Sunkist Soda, Canada Dry, Hawaiian Punch, Schweppes, Penafiel, Squirt, Clamato, Mr & Mrs T Mixers, Rose’s, Yoo-hoo and other consumer favorites. Most of the brands in this segment are CSD brands. In 2009, our Beverage Concentrates segment had net sales of approximately $1. 1 billion. Strengths| Weaknesses| Strong portfolio, consumer-preferred brands| Weak performance in Asian Market| Integrated business model| A substantial amount of outstanding debt| Strong customer relationships| | Strong operating margins and stable cash flows| | Opportunities| Threats| New distribution channels in a market| Changing consumer tastes| Growing consumer health consciousness | Operating in highly competitive markets| Focus on opportunities in high growth and high margin categories| Depend on the 3rd party bottling and distribution companies | Cott Corporation. Cott Corp is one of the leading non-alcoholic beverage companies and retailer brand soft drink providers. The company primarily operates in the US, Canada, the UK and Mexico. It is headquartered in Toronto, Canada and employs 2,803 people. The company recorded revenues of $1,648. 1 million during the financial year ended December 2009, a decrease of 7. 2% compared to 2008. The operating loss of the company was $113 million during 2009, compared to the operating loss of $54. 5 million in 2008. The net loss was $122. 8 million in 2009, compared to the net loss of $71. 4 million in 2008. Strengths| Weaknesses| Leading Producer of Retailer Brand Beverages with Diverse Product Portfolio | Unable to compete successfully in the highly competitive beverage category. | Extensive, Flexible Manufacturing Capabilities | May not be able to respond successfully to consumer trends | | significant amount of outstanding debt| Opportunities| Threats| New distribution channels in a market| Changing consumer tastes| Growing consumer health consciousness | Intense competition| Focus on opportunities in high growth and high margin categories| | National Beverage Corp. National Beverage develops, manufactures, markets and distributes a portfolio of beverage products throughout the US. The company develops and sells a selection of flavored soft drinks, juices, sparkling waters and energy drinks. It is headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, Florida and employed about 1,300 people. The company recorded revenues of $566 million during fiscal year ending April 2008, an increase of 5% over 2007. The increase in revenue was due to 9% growth in case volume of energy drinks, juices, and waters. The operating profit of the company was $172. 6 million during 2008, a decrease of 0. 4% compared with 2007. The net profit was $22. 5 million in 2008, decrease of 8. 9% compared with 2007. Strengths| Weaknesses| Extensive Brand Portfolio| Geographic concentration| | Declining Profits| Opportunities| Threats| Focus on Asia Pacific Market| Limitations on Commercialization of Alcoholic Products| Rise in Demand for bottled Water in the US| Riding Input Costs| Change in Consumer Preferences| Intense Competitive Pressures| Company’s key success factors within the soft drink industry. Key factors for competitive success within the soft drink industry branch from the trends of the microenvironment. Primarily, constant product innovation is imperative. A company must be able to recognize consumer wants and needs, while maintaining the ability to adjust with the changing market. They must keep up with the changing trends. Another key factor is the size of the organization, especially in terms of market share. Large distributors have the ability to negotiate with stadiums, universities and school systems, making them the exclusive supplier for a specified period of time. Additionally, they have the ability to commit to mass purchases that significantly lower their costs. They must implement effective distribution channels to remain competitive. Taste of the product is also a key factor for success. Moreover, established brand loyalty is a large aspect of the soft drink industry. Many consumers of carbonated beverages are extremely dedicated to a particular product, and rarely purchase other varieties. This stresses the importance of developing and maintaining a superior brand image. Price, however, is also a key factor because consumers without a strong brand preference will select the product with the most competitive price. Finally, global expansion is a vital factor in the success of a company within the soft drink industry. The United States has reached relative market saturation, requiring movement into the global industry to maintain growth. Soft drink industry main characteristics, trends and changes. Soft drinks are an integral part of American life and culture and soft drinks have been produced or consumed in nearly every corner of the world. The industry is lucrative with a potential for high profits, but there are several obstacles to overcome in order to capture the market share. Growing consumption trends can be attributed to rising disposable incomes, falling trade barriers, universal product acceptance, and a rising demand for American consumer goods. It would be very difficult for a new company to enter this industry because they would not be able to compete with the established brand names, distribution channels, and high capital investment. Likewise, leaving this industry would be difficult with the significant loss of money from the fixed costs, binding contracts with distribution channels, and advertisements used to create the strong brand images. This industry is well established already, and it would be difficult for any company to enter or exit successfully. The carbonated beverage industry is a highly competitive global industry, and has some characteristics of an oligopoly in the US. Three leading companies have prominent presence in the soft drink industry. The leaders include the Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo, and Cadbury Schweppes. Leader companies have to hold the highest percentage of the global market share; therefore, companies need to be able to compete globally in order to be successful. Profitability in the soft drink industry will remain rather solid, but market saturation especially.