Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Models help or hinder the search for knowledge Essay Example

Models help or hinder the search for knowledge Essay A model is a representation of a complex structure or concept that is used to explain it and represent it in a more simplistic manner with the aim of facilitating the understanding of it. Models are used in a variety of subjects such as natural sciences, government structures, history and many more. Although they are simplified simulations, they provide a representation of reality that help our learning and understanding of the phenomena that occur. However, models have the possibility of leading us into an error or incorrect information and thus present limitations that have the potential of hindering the knowledge. Models can be broken down into four main categories. Experimental models which can be constructed and put to use in a laboratory. A ‘scale models would fit under this category, representing spatial relationships, and ‘working models’ representing temporal sequences. At the other end of the spectrum are logical models. These start from the axioms and theorems of a formal deductive system, they are used to illustrate abstract systems and provide a possible interpretation of it. Lastly, there are theoretical models. These are imaginative mental constructions made to conceptualize observed phenomena. They are usually imagined mechanisms that are described with analogies to familiar processes. For instance, in physics, the â€Å"billiard-ball model† of gas is a perfect example of a theoretical model. Although it is intended to represent an underlying structure of a physical system, it is merely a symbolic representation that is developed into a theory that explains the phenomena as a model. A relevant knowledge issue concerning theoretical models would: to what extend can models give a realistic and accurate representation of reality? We will write a custom essay sample on Models help or hinder the search for knowledge specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Models help or hinder the search for knowledge specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Models help or hinder the search for knowledge specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Consider a container full of a gas such as air and imagine that it is composed of minuscule elastic spheres bouncing around. It can be assumed that the mechanical behavior of the spheres is similar to the behavior of colliding billiard balls. From this assumption, a theory can be put forward, the one of Kinetic Theory of Gases that involves equations interrelating the velocity (p), mass (m), momentum and energy of the hypothetical spheres. None of these theoretical properties can be physically observed. On the other hand, some theoretical terms could be related to observable properties of the gas, for instance, a change in the momentum of the collision amongst particle with the containing wall may be identified as the pressure of the gas. These assumptions lead to Boyle’s Law stating that if the volume of a gas is reduced by 50% then the pressure of the gas will double. (e.g. compressing air during a bicycle jump). Hypothetical minuscule elastic spheres were assumed to have mass and velocity similarly to billiard balls do although no color. The analogies are not simply formal like they are in mathematics, they may be physical, elasticity and mass. In the creation of a theory, scientist may suggest a model incorporating analogies drawn from a variety of familiar situations combined with radically new assumptions. In the diagram below, all the lines going into the model are represented as dotted due to their origins lying in an act of creative imagination instead of making a purely logic based inference. Generally speaking, dotted arrows should be added coming in from other familiar situations, on the left. When imagining a model, there are explicit or implicit references to what is similar and previously intelligible, furthermore there is freedom allowing to interpret a phenomena in the desired model. It can be assigned to any property that are thought of as fruitful contributors to the theory. This depends on the perception of the scientist of the phenomena in question. Therefore, since theoretical models are based on a scientists interpretation of what they perceive and the analogy that is made to an already known model, models do not provide a fully reliable and accurate representation of reality. Theoretical models can further be perceived as subjective and self determined, thus the numerous debates and disagreements amongst scientists concerning more complex models. Theoretical models convey associations and implications that aren’t specifically determined and that may be transferred if a shit in paradigm occurs due to the application of a different analogy to the phenomena. Additional developments and modifications may be proposed.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"A metaphor proposes analogies between the familiar context of a word and a new context into which it is introduced †. Models can be compared to metaphors due their similar property of open-endedness. Max Black said that ‘It may help us to notice what would otherwise be overlooked and to shift the relative emphasis attached to details in short, to see new connections.† A model suggests new ways of perceiving a situation that presents problems by transferring some of the features of another given situation that is fully understood. The implications implied by the use of a metaphor to refer to a model is not merely subjective as it is employed by the majority of a community using a language. For instance, the use of an analogy that might not have been essential to the formulation of the model could potentially influence the development of the paradigm. Science, most often doesn’t recognize the line separating theoretical language from observational language; the distinction is relative to the situation and depends on the context. A close parallel between the interaction of metaphorical language and literal language can be made, there is a lack of division line between the two. ‘Billiard-ball model’ incites one to think about the whole kinetic gas model as a pool table and the movement of billiard balls. The term was initially introduced as an analogy to visualize a non ‘touchable’ matter. The metaphor has now become a standard reference and is often used to teach with in education. Metaphors, like models, have the potential to extend language and influence the literal recordings of facts and therefore create new meanings. Since the new meanings are based on analogies from the start, they could have distorted the reality of the model to a great extent, providing a less accurate representation. A metaphor evokes emotional responses whereas a scientific model was designed to be systematically developed, specifying the positive and negative analogy although the neutral analogy is open ended and leaves spaced for further interpretation. Furthermore, a scientific model leads to a testable theory. Nevertheless, the similarities between metaphors and models are significant enough to illustrate the importance of imagining analogies. Metaphors aren’t literally true, although, according to Wheelwright, they do â€Å"say something, however tentatively and obliquely, about the nature of what is†. Metaphors help illustrate a model by drawing a direct comparison between the phenomena that is desired to be represented with an analogy that is already existent in our world, defined, explained and understood. The ‘double-helix’ model of the DNA molecules in biology is also considered as a theoretical model, but that one specifically is closer to observational evidence that can be collected in a lab and can therefore be literally taken. Nevertheless, even in this theoretical model, only a defined number of aspects that compose world are brought into prominence, while a few more are neglected. For instance, the model exhibits the spatial relationships between the DNA components but doesn’t take account of the character of the existing bonds between them. In conclusion, models are used in various manner in science. They serve different functions among which you may find practical and theoretical. Theoretical models are innovative mental constructions based on imagination, perception and the ability to relate to already existing models. They end up in a combination of analogies that are usually open-ended and leave space for further development and possibility for shifts in interpretation. Models are usually taken very seriously but not literarily as they are only simplistic representations of complex phenomena. They can’t be defined as pictures of reality nor useful fictions, rather as inadequate and partial manners of imagining and creating what is not observable – in theoretical models.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

English Verb Tense Resources

English Verb Tense Resources Learning verb tenses is one of the most important tasks in any language learning. There are a number of resources at the site that will help you learn tense rules, practice using verbs in different tenses, read sample sentences in a variety of tenses, teach tenses in class, and more. For an overview of conjugation of all these tenses, use the tense tables or the visual guide to tenses for reference. Teachers can use theses guides on how to teach tenses for further activities and lesson plans in class Tense Use Rules and Explanations These explanation resources provide the rules for each tense, as well as examples of proper tense use. Use the time expression commonly used with the tense, as well as the example sentences to help you get started. Present Simple Every day - When do you get up? / Tom usually eats lunch at home.Present Continuous Now - Shes watching TV at the moment. / Im not working, Im reading a newspaper.Past Simple Yesterday - They went on vacation last July. / Where did you meet Tim?Past Continuous Yesterday, at X oclock They were watching TV at 5 oclock yesterday. / What were you doing when he came home?Present Perfect Since / For - Ive lived here a long time. / Have you ever seen that film?Past Simple vs. Present Perfect Ive lived here for many years. vs. I lived there before I moved to New York.Present Perfect Continuous Since / For Time - Weve been working since 8 this morning. / What has she been doing recently?Past Perfect Already - They had already eaten when she arrived. / Had you finished the report by the time he asked for it?Future with Will Tomorrow, Next week - Well get together next week. / Will you be able to come tomorrow?Future with Going to Tomorrow, Next year, semester, etc. - Theyre goi ng to study Russian next semester. / Where are you going to stay?Future Perfect By, By the time - Ill have finished by the time he arrives. / Will you have done the work by six?Future Continuous At X oclock, This time next year, month, week / What will you be doing this time next year? - Shell be working tomorrow at 10 oclock.Conditional Forms If questions - What would you do if you had enough time? / If she is in town, shell come to the meeting.Alternate Conditional FormsModal Forms Asking Permission, Giving Advice, etc. - May I help you? / He should see a doctor.Modal Verbs of Probability Stating guesses - He must have stayed at home today. / She might be downstairs. Tense Use Rules For Beginners These tense explanations cover basic tenses and are especially for beginners. They include easier English as well as example dialogues of tense use. Present SimplePast SimplePresent PerfectFuture with WillFuture with Going toModal Form Basics Tense Quizzes Once you understand the tense use, these quizzes will help you test your knowledge. The more you practice, the more confident you will feel using various tenses. Past Tenses ReviewSimple Past or Present PerfectPresent Perfect or Present Perfect ContinuousAdvanced Tense IdentificationConditional FormsPassive Forms Quiz Tense Review If you have a good understanding of tense use, these pages will help you review tenses as they relate to each other. The resources include a tense timeline, and a special section focusing on auxiliary verbs - the key to verb conjugation. English Tenses TimelinePresent Tense Auxiliary VerbsPast Tense Auxiliary VerbsFuture Tense Auxiliary VerbsSimple vs. Progressive VerbsExample Sentences in All Tenses Tense Use Lessons These lesson plans can be used in your classes. Each lesson plan includes an introduction, a step by step guideline to teaching tense use, and class exercises to be used during the lesson. A Difficult Situation: Using Modal Verbs of Probability in the PastA VIP - Present Perfect Simple and Continuous Lesson PlanConditional StatementsIntegrating Past ContinuousPassive VoiceTense ReviewTime Expressions and Simple Past or Present PerfectReported Speech: Developing Production SkillsTense Review for Advanced Levels

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Euthanasia in the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Euthanasia in the United States - Essay Example It is vital that the health professionals understand the cultural, legal, and ethical climate that may allow, forbid, or dictate the use of what is commonly called euthanasia. For the purposes of this discussion, euthanasia is in context with patients that are terminally ill, have a poor prognosis, a very limited life span, in palliative care, and are suffering due to a low quality of life or intense pain. While euthanasia is a generic term often used by the public, it requires further definition. Voluntary euthanasia is done at the patient's request, while non-voluntary is committed when the patient may be incompetent to make the decision or in a comatose state and the decision is made by a surrogate (Cohen et al. 1099). Withholding treatment that could sustain life is a form of euthanasia, and may come at the request of a patient, a surrogate, a physician, or a medical review board (Cohen et al 1099). Terminal sedation is, "the practice of sedating a terminally ill competent patient to the point of unconsciousness, then allowing the patient to die of her disease, starvation, or dehydration" (Braddock and Tonelli). Physician assisted suicide (PSA) is the prescribing of a lethal dose of drugs with the knowledge that the patient intends to commit suicide (Cohen et al. 1099). Each form of euthanasia carries its own legal ramifications and is governed by its own set of ethical considerations. While Belgium and the Netherlands in the European Union have enacted laws that permit euthanasia in a well-regulated setting, in the United States it is generally forbidden. From a legal standpoint, voluntary euthanasia (suicide) is allowed in only four states due to "neither statutory nor common law prohibitions against suicide" (Darr Part II 33-34). Non-voluntary euthanasia is outlawed in all fifty states and would fall under the statutes that prohibit murder (Cohen et al. 1099). While these forms of euthanasia are against the law in most US jurisdictions, other forms may be permitted in special situations. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) is a topic that has gained wider discussion in recent years as medical treatments may prolong a person's life, but are unable to add to the quality of life. PAS came to the public's attention when Dr. Kervorkian admitted to assisting suicide in as many as 130 separate cases (Darr Part II 32). According to Darr Part II, "All his assisted suicides occurred in Michigan, which initially had no law banning it" (31). Michigan subsequently passed a law, but Dr Kervorkian continued the practice. He was eventually sentenced for murder and after exhausting his appeals the US Supreme Court denied his writ for certiorari in 2002 (Darr Part II 32). However, these actions opened the door for states to create legislation that would permit PAS. Currently only Oregon has a law that permits PAS. In Texas, PAS is governed under section 22.08 of the state penal code that states if, "the actor's conduct causes suicide or attempted suicide that results in serious bodily in jury" it is considered a jail felony (Chapter 22). The argument over PAS has been, and continues to be, controversial. Kervorkian's argument was predicated upon Roe v. Wade on the basis of individual autonomy and the right

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Protecting the House of Under Armour Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Protecting the House of Under Armour - Article Example Kraft and Lee involve an evaluation of the company’s dealings in its bid to ensure success upon its product portfolio. Findings from the article indicate that the company engaged on production with a capital base amounting to $310,000 after Kevin Plank realized the need to enhance sports through manufacturing the ideal wears for each sports activity. The authors account on the initial capital base of the company as sourced from three bodies for example, $20,000 from private equity, $30,000 from borrowed finances, and $250,000 loan for small business enterprises. Eventually, the article establishes that the founders’ zeal propelled the success of the company to reach its goals in becoming a competent producer of sports equipment. Despite the variations of managing the Under Armour products to become a brand, the company’s successes remain interrelated to the strategic involvement and the indulged passion of Kevin Plank in his quest to facilitate sports. The articl e articulates that the company’s focus on the current culture, the target market share, and the involvement in brand placement are the constituent propellants to its success. The two authors successfully ascertain that the engaged programs guaranteed Under Armour to acquire its current market share and beneficial outcomes. CRITIQUE Protecting the house of under armour The article’s title, â€Å"Protecting the house of Under Armour† seeks to analyze the Under Armour brand management beginning from the initial foundation to the current state of the company. Kraft and Lee authored the article purporting to enable readers derive necessary knowledge concerning the development of products and protection of brands. The article establishes that Kevin Plank’s initial intention emanated from the urge and desire to manufacture athletes’ wears that suited their psychological and physical purposes. The article’s title entails protection of a house of und er armour. However, the article contains managerial and production activities of the Under Armour brand (Kraft and Lee, 2009, p, 113). This is a distractive course taken upon by the authors since the readers find it confusing since they have to understand the correlations of protecting and managing the brand. After the title of the article, the authors directly address the issue of the initial manufacturing processing and sourcing of capital under a subtopic named building the house. Normally, the reader would expect to read the abstract of the article in order to be certain of the context and relevance. The authors fail to acknowledge the salient need of the introduction as they engage on establishing various subtopics, which tend to be independent from each other (Kraft and Lee, 2009, p, 115). Arguably, the method of writing tends to be ill since the avoidance of introduction serves as a deception for the reader lacks an overview of the items contains in the article. The article a ccounts on Kevin’s resolutions to establish a longtime remedy to the problems that befell athletes during sports. Kraft and Lee establish the founder who is also the company’s head embarked on the production plan to help his teammates after realizing the psychological discomfort they all experienced from their sportswear. However, the article fails to account on the founder’

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Governments should control what kind of content reaches their Essay

Governments should control what kind of content reaches their populations through the media because they are responsible for pro - Essay Example The Communist concept proposed by Lenin states that mass media should aim at nation building by publishing news relating to the entire society's policies and goals as determined by the government. The third concept called Development concept is applied mainly to underdeveloped countries that are lacking in media and other technological resources.  Whichever is the mode of control, the censoring mechanism by government acts as an effective control and monitoring for the media and is an indispensable component of a successful democracy. (Martin, 1983) Ensuring Authenticity of Information The media, sometimes, promotes and spreads lies, defamations and gossip. There are too many newspapers and news-channels that have made it their routine affair to gossip and spread rumours about persons who always tend to occupy the centre-stage of public’s attention - whether it's a sportsperson, a film star or a politician. The government should make it a point to ensure that every matter th at is printed and circulated is actually newsworthy, as accurate as possible and not malicious or biased. Some of us might be of the view that a censored state would mean no free speech. But is the right to free speech synonymous to the right to publish lies? The answer would be a NO. Hence it is clearly necessary that whatever is published is sensible and non-offensive.Freedom of speech may apparently seem to be an issue at hand, but the more critical issue here is integrity. Censorship not only ensures that that the media activities adhere to the principles of humanity but also conceals the sensitive issues until it is the right time to reveal them. Currently, there are lots of irresponsible media agencies and journalists offering and spreading around their own interpretation of the situation, even though it is wrong. This often causes harm to reputation and even lives. But censorship enables the information to be verified before it is put in front of the masses. The government is needed to censor the media to protect the people, the media and the international community. Restricting Negative Impact on Children Children in the modern world grow up experiencing the impact of media in all spheres of their life. If the media conveys to them false notions and fabricated ideas regarding life and society, they will begin to expect something that society really isn't. They will go out to the world behaving like what they see their favourite characters doing on television, in video games and in movies. Our children could also begin to idolize the celebrities, more show than substance, whom the media figuratively worship and publicise for their own business gains. The acts of such celebrities on the big screen promote malpractices among the teenagers such as abusing drugs, spoiling relationships, committing crimes and getting involved in unethical and immoral activities. Hence, some selective content should be filtered before it is passed down to be viewed by general public as not only children, but a lot of adults are also not able to steer their own opinions and end up getting negatively influenced by the media. Children are the building blocks of a nation. But children growing up under the influence of misleading media will lead to demotion of the society rather than promoting and contributing to the success of society. So it is

Friday, November 15, 2019

Managing And Leading Change

Managing And Leading Change Ashland Case Study Assignment Company background Ashland Inc is a Fortune 500 and Standard and Poors (SP) Midcap 400 company, providing specialised chemical, technologies and insights through Ashland Aqualon Functional Ingredients, Ashland Hercules Waters Technologies, Ashland Performance Materials, Ashland Consumer Markets (Valvoline) and Ashland Distribution. The firm has operations in more than 100 countries worldwide. In 2010 the companys revenue equated to $9bn, but its beginnings in 1924 were far more humble and it has   been though many changes since it was founded in 1924 as part of the refining arm of the Swiss Oil company, and it was then known as the Ashland Refining Company. The company takes its name after the town of its inception, namely Ashland, Kentucky in the United States. In 1936 both companies merged and Ashland General Manager, Paul G. Blazer, became the newly merged companys president and the company achieved $4.8m in sales, and by the entry of the United States into the Second World War they had grown to $12m. During the period a new refinery is built at Catlettsburg to produce aviation fuel. After the war the Ashland brand is developed, and products are sold under the companys name. This enables sales to further rise to $20.4m, and the company makes further strides in 1950 by acquiring the Freedom-Valvoline Oil Company and the contributed to a further boost to sales by 900 per cent. By 1959 the Valvoline brand had begun to reach the top of the lubricants world, thanks to an increase in the firms growing workforce, advertising campaigns, investments in infrastructure and it is highly featured in motorsport to this day. The growth in its petro-chemicals business led to further growth, leading to the acquisition of R.J Brown of St. Louis, Montana and sales grew to $280m. However, in 1966 the company diversified and it purchased Warren Brothers and Ashland Paving And Construction Inc. was born. The firms sales reached $699 million as a result of this acquisition. Furthermore the company continued to evolve during the 1960s with the acquisition of ADM Chemical Group and the formation of Ashland Chemical, making Ashland a leading chemical supplier. In 1969 Ashland Petroleum was formed, a year after the company had reached the milestone of having achieved an annual revenue of $1bn. However, the company further diversified and it enters into the coal-extraction market with the launch of the Arch-Mineral joint venture.   The following year the companys name is changed further to gaining shareholders support, and it became Ashland Oil. It also purchases a refinery, adding the SuperAmerica petrol station and convenience store chain to its holdings. The next milestone appears in 1986 with the establishment of Valvoline Instant Oil Change, which provided a service for lubricating vehicles across 70 units. Since then it has become the second-largest franchised quick lubrication business in the US, and it can be found at 870 locations. The table below, according to the company, shows its other important milestones: Year Event 1992 Ashland acquires most of Unocals chemical distribution business, becoming North Americas leading distributor of chemicals and solvents 1994 Zerex vehicle antifreeze and coolant, the No. 2 brand in the U.S., is added to the Valvoline product line-up. Sales reach $10.3 billion. 1995 Shareholders approve changing the companys name to Ashland Inc. to better reflect our diverse operations. This same year, more than $368 million is invested in 14 acquisitions to strengthen related energy and chemical businesses. 1998 Ashland and Marathon Oil merge their petroleum refining and marketing assets into a joint venture. Eagle One auto appearance products join the Valvoline brand line-up. 1999 Ashland celebrates its 75th anniversary. The company relocates its headquarters from Ashland, Ky., USA, to Covington, Ky., USA, adjacent to Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. 2002 Ashland introduces Envirez resin, the first commercially available unsaturated polyester resin containing a significant quantity of renewable materials. 2004 Ashland reorganizes into two sectors, Chemical and Transportation Construction. This lays the foundation for the companys transformation into a global specialty chemical company. 2005 Ashland divests its joint-venture oil and refining business to partner Marathon Oil, and also acquires Car Brite, a leading marketer of professional auto reconditioning products. Sales are $9.3 billion. 2006 The transformation into a specialty chemical company continues. Northwest Coatings, a technical leader in the development of innovative Waters-based and energy-curable adhesives and coatings, is acquired and Ashland Paving And Construction, Inc. is sold. 2008 Ashland acquires Hercules Incorporated in a $3.3-billion transaction. The deal moves us into the top tier of global specialty chemical companies. 2009 The Nanjing Technical Center opens in China. The applications lab supports customers in the coatings, construction, energy, food, personal care and industrial specialties markets. Sales reach $8.1 billion. 2010 Natrosol hydroxyethylcellulose rolls off the line at a new plant in Nanjing, China. Ashland launches a global joint venture in foundry chemicals with Sà ¼d-Chemie AG and announces plans to sell Ashland Distribution in 2011. 2011 Ashland and our people continue to set the standard for good chemistry and all of the great things it creates around the world. Table data source: Ashland Inc. Ashland vision, mission, values and operating principles The firm aims to be a leading global specialised chemical company by inspiring and engaging with its employees and adding value to everything it does. The company describes its mission as follows: â€Å"We satisfy our customers by delivering results through quality chemical products and services. Our desire to grow drives our passion to win in the marketplace. With a unified, low-cost operating structure, well remain competitive across every business and in every geographic region.† The following are its values and operating principles: Our Values: Who we are We act with integrity and honesty. We focus on customer and shareholder success and compete to win. We recognize each person for the difference he or she makes. We drive innovation and results by understanding the market and its opportunities. We are committed to the values of responsibility, sustainability and transparency. We create safe and health-conscious work environments, require compliance and embrace environmental stewardship. Our Operating Principles: How it happens We operate in compliance with the law and adhere to high ethical standards. We assess the impact on customers and society when making decisions. We are externally focused. Our businesses are defined by markets. We are process-centred. Our processes are designed to optimize global performance. Ashland leaders are first responsible to Ashland and second to a business, resource group or process. We are led by an Executive Committee that enforces our principles, sets our strategy and manages our capital. We are united by our common vision, mission, values and operating principles. Case Study Background Ashland Incs earnings were off track in 2002. The company was also troubled by high levels of redundancy and operating costs throughout its business groups. The annual net results were also lower than the companys share value. Even though the company has evidently gone through a number of transformations and evolutions since 1924, the vice-president of HR at the time felt that the firms troubles because it had turned it into a change-averse organisation. There was apparently no desire for change, and this person felt that as a company they didnt do it well. Doing something different was thought of as change. Between 1998 and 2003 Ashland had gone through a resource group restructuring exercise, relocated its head office, sold its oil exploration business, and it engaged in marketing and refining joint ventures. Dwight King, Ashland Chemicals President for HR, said that there was a lot of rubble left behind, which led to unwanted turnover and reductions in performance. â€Å"As our previous VP of HR would say, a lot of wreckage results from somehow not executing our plans correctly†, he said before explaining that the elements of a previous failure were impacting severely on the business. There was also a new and critical project on the table, and the leadership team recognised that they were not being very efficient due to a lacking of understanding of what it means to be change leaders.   Dwight therefore felt that he was about to watch another car accident occur. What was missing was not the what and why, but the how to change the organisation for the better. So in 2003 the firms senior executives recognised that they hadnt changed direction as well as they could have done. So the organisation was nearly broken when the company tried to implement its first Enterprise Resource Planning system in its distribution unit, and this led to a shut down of west coast operations. The implementation hadnt gone as well as everyone had expected. Change was therefore vital, and so Dwight initiated a change management programme. The company needed to build change into the organisation as a competency. The objectives were to ‘retro-fit several of its major initiatives to a change management methodology, integrate project and change management, to create a training curriculum and to build competencies within the following groups: managers, supervisors, practitioners, intact project teams and employees. He recognised that this had to start from the top of the organisation, and so he arranged an executive briefing with all of the firms business unit presidents. He succeeded in gaining sponsorship for his initiative at the meeting. The programmes focused on HR, project managers and the distribution leadership team. By 2005 this had created tremendous momentum, including the adoption of change management terminologies and a new change management approach. However, the first investments in change occurred in 2004 when Dwight facilitated a conversation with the chemical sector leadership team. He asked them a number of questions to find out where the company should be in five years time, and what it should look like. The discussion also analysed, from that particular hypothetical perspective, how the company got there, and what they would have to do to arrive at their perceived ‘destination. There was also some in-depth discussion about the obstacles theyd face and how they would overcome them. The SAP implementation moved forward too. It was now fully implemented, and Ashland formed its GlobalOne project team for SAP to begin a worldwide roll-out. Dwight convinced the SAP project manager that he needed to include a change management element in its deployment. In fact he said that ‘change needed to go well beyond that which was defined by the SAP consultants. â€Å"There were plenty of people who gave lip-service to the word ‘change, including the consultants, two of the largest consulting firms in the world†, said Dwight. He added that their idea of change involved â€Å"documenting the new physical competencies of change around what new buttons you had to push, what new levers you had to pull, what new screens you were seeing in order to enter or bill an order, or service an account.† There was no understanding about the resistance that would be created by any change programme implementation; their views didnt even consider the creation of a body of knowledge about expectations and then reinforcing them through training. This meant that there would need to be some systems training in place, and so a change management consultant was hired for the GlobalOne team. Previously they had implemented SAP Global One in Canada, and even though there was a good change management plan in place, some issues arose. The trouble was that the assets were only there for just two weeks, and then the team left to implement it in the US. Out of this situation came the realisation that you need a dedicated change management structure within the project to make sure that it succeeds. It was also recognised that certain people were needed in order to be responsible for the change effort. Around the same period the company implemented an organisation-wide rewards scheme, called Total Rewards, which redesigned the firms salary and incentive schemes. This migrated the company to a single incentive scheme. Previously each group had had their own. Ashlands CEO and Board Chairman, Jim OBrien, was introduced to the change leadership tools, and he used them to identify the champions within the company. Working collaboratively with HR and Communications he developed a strategy to target the change sponsors. â€Å"It went incredibly well†, said Dwight before adding that it was â€Å"fraught with potential landmines and we missed most of them, so Jim, our CEO, became an advocate for change competency.† They also adopted a change management methodology and 150 people attended a workshop. The companys distribution managers and projects leaders, upon participating in the workshops, thought that they had at last struck on what change was all about. Subsequently this marked a change in Ashlands deployment strategy. There was no longer a requirement to apply change management to one project at a time. An enterprise-wide approach was sanctioned by OBrien instead, and he selected Hank Waters to be the Ashland Enterprise Change Management Executive sponsor. Dwight King and Hank Waters then set about creating an organisational structure and identified key players within the ECM Deployment Team. The ECM Deployment Team was created in May 2006, and it began to implement the change management programme across the company from this point. While Hank Waters was at its leader, the team also included Pam Yost, Carol Chistobek, Jerry Prochko, Lisa Ireland, Mark Lambeth, Stacy Dunbar and Vondar Melton. An ECM Steering Committee was also formed to provide oversight for the ECM Deployment team, and it became an important catalyst for driving change further into the organisation. Two members of the team also undertook a course to become change management trainers in a change management methodology. The Steering Committee included heads of HR, Corporate Communications, IT, EHS and two business unit leaders. Its purpose was to provide direction to the change management programme. Together they achieved substantial change between 2003 and 2008, and the company made significantly more inroads than it had done previously to achieve their vision to construct a platform for growth. This exercise was repeated across the globe, and it was helped when a former business unit head and a member of the ECM steering committee, Peter Rijneveldshoek, became president of Ashland Europe. He requested that all members of the 200 plus European management team attend change management training in preparation for the SAP implementation. Dwight says that the company lost momentum at one point due to moving a key executive from change management deployment over to Ashlands Waters division, but the aim was to make change part of the organisations DNA. Therefore European project leaders were also required to undergo change management training. However, this was more embedded in the US more than in Europe. The training also occurred with project managers in China. In April 2007 a series of assessments were conducted, and there were also a number of professional development sessions held with the 12 members of the Operating Committee and the CEO. The aim of the assessments was to help the senior executives to understand the true meaning behind sponsorship of change, and it gave them an insight into how they were fulfilling their roles. Coaching sessions followed these ones, and sponsorship development roadmaps were created to enable the leadership team to develop their skills as sponsors of the change management programme. The project was deemed to be successful with 95% of the participants in a survey about the change management programme reporting that the training and tools helped them to provide support for their employees during the SAP EMEA implementation. An online training course was also provided, and 331 employees took part in it. Again 96% agreed strongly or just agreed that the course had been worth the time it took to take it. However, at one point it was felt that the ECM team required another 6-12 months to ensure that 90% of the organisation would be more change-ready. Problems arose due to members of the team being moved to more permanent roles within other parts of the organisation. Nevertheless, change became more part of Ashlands dictionary than it was previously, and more awareness of what change means was created. TASK: You are a change management consultant whose been asked to come into Ashland to assess the companys change programmes. Critically analyse and evaluate the success of the programme mentioned in the case study, consider other approaches that the firm could have taken, and think about what recommendations for change youd make for 2011 onwards based on the your knowledge of the companys history and previous change management efforts. Use the information contained in the case study, plus further primary and secondary research to form your assessment of Ashlands future strategic direction and explain how it will need to adopt new change management programmes. Consider all of the aspects of Managing and Leading Change that were discussed in your lectures, including the theoretical models and approaches to managing, leading and implementing change within an organisation. Compare your approach to the one taken by Ashland between 2003 and 2008, and explain how you would measure the success of your change management programme. For example, which metrics should Ashland be using to assess the success of its change programmes?

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

PBGC Company Profile Essay

PBGC is an abbreviation of a Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. The purpose of this federal corporation is to protect American’s pension. Its mission is related to protection: Forty four million American workers retirement income is currently being protected in more than 30000 benefit pension plans of private single-employer and multiemployer. Its formation is the result of an act of 1974 by the name Employee Retirement Income Security Act. It has the following objectives: First It helps private-sector define benefit pension plans to be continued and remain well maintained. Second is to provide pension benefits payment time to time, without any interruption. Its third objective is to keep minimum pension insurance premiums. The defined benefit pension plan gives pension on a monthly basis to the retirees but the pension amount is depended upon the salary and the year of services the retirees have rendered. The corporation does not only give monthly payments to retirees up to the guaranteed maximum but also the multiemployer plans participants and one who have not retired yet get financial assistance from it. General Tax Revenues don’t give any kind of fund to this corporation. Insurance premiums financed the operations of this federal corporation which was being set by Congress. Insurance premium is being paid by the sponsors defined for each benefit plan that are basically employers. The recoveries are being made from the companies which would be responsible for the plans in the past. Earnings come from investments for this corporation. According to the plan ended in 2008, workers will get $4,312. 50 monthly when they will get retire at the age of 65. It serves the range of customer’s e. g. general public, media and so on. Board of directors including the Secretaries of Labor (Chair), Commerce and the Treasury guided the operations of PBGC. The two highest priorities of this administration is to reform the defined benefit pension system and bring improvement in retirement security. It contributed in the development of Pension Protection Act of 2006. Since PBGC has worked over the last 33 years for the protection plan of participant’s interests and also to support private pension system’s growth; millions of American workers can now think about secured retirement along with their families. Both the benefit plan and the guarantee by PBGC have made a difference in the lives of the diligent Americans. Annually about $4 million is being given by this corporation to 44 million Americans. The development of the 2006 act not only improved the status of funding of many defined benefit plans but also pension system is being strengthened. Competitive advantage: The corporation has been very effective throughout in managing change over the past few years,’ pension insurance programs have faced many unexpected challenges. The corporation also won an award of managing its work force superbly in this changing business environment. The executive director said: â€Å"We are pleased to be recognized for having the right people, processes and systems in place to manage a doubling of our customer base with no diminution in the quality of our customer service. † (www. pbgc. gov,2008). It was being a first federal agency which got the full certification for its executive evaluation system. It got plenty of awards presented in magazines. These are as under: General Excellence, Service, Competitive Advantage, Global Outlook, Innovation, Managing Change, Financial Impact, Partnership, Ethical Practice and Vision. Weaknesses of PBGC: Weaknesses of PBGC’s certification and accreditation (C&A): This would impact the accuracy and completion of information which would affect the credibility of the corporation. It also affects the capability of the corporation to take and manage risks. It compromises agency’s personnel and assets too. There should be an effective C&A system to assure security of assets, personnel and operations and that could assure that the corporation is capable enough to meet its functional requirements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-37, Accreditation of Federal Information Systems and Guide for the Security Certification provides the framework under 2002 act named as the Federal Information Security Management Act, Public Law 107-347, for how C&A program of this corporation should be implemented. Inadequate security policy and plan: The security policy and plan of the current information of PBGC are not according to the guidance provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology Special (NIST) under Federal Information Security Management Act. NIST has developed guidance and standards. It also includes minimum requirement to provide sufficient security of information for all agency assets and operations Change in organizational structure: In 2006 the reorganization of the OIT i. e. ffice of information technology had badly affected the Information System Security Officer’s ability to ensure appropriate operational security for PBGC’s information system. It affected the clarity for officer in terms of his responsibilities and accountability. It made it hard for the officer to establish security standards and procedures. Internal control weaknesses: High risk is being involved in the PBGC’s single-employer pension insurance program. The program had an accumulated deficit of $5. 4 billion in 2003 which was the largest one in history of the corporation. Under funding also increased dramatically in private pension system. The deficit was due to the following reasons: bankrupt firm’s under funded pension plans were ceased, there was a drawback in funding rules, stock market and interest rates decline, companies went global and economy is turned into knowledge based economy. The company had taken steps to improve the internal control for premiums. This is being done for two reasons. First Safeguard of assets: controls must be establish to ensure that cost and obligation are according to the law applicable and assets are safeguarded against any loss or related factors. Second reason is Financial Reporting: it is to ensure that proper reporting is being done of all the revenues and expenditures so that documentation and reports can be made and are accurate. Data Quality Weaknesses: Incorrect data entry, adjustments, and system-generated balances generate errors. Because of the data quality issue, the corporation is unable to ensure the accuracy and completeness of premium data by utilizing Past Due Filing Notices and Statements of Account. The 1st one used to notify plans which had not yet submitted premium filings and 2nd one is used to ensure that underpaid/overpaid premiums from a plan sponsor could be sort out effectively. During auditing it was being noticed that these two tools are not being used timely as it requires significant resources before mailing. Due to this, premiums could not be collected and errors could not be detected. Additionally policies and procedures have not been documented, communicated, or implemented throughout PBGC which is related to the premium accounting cycle. www. pbgc. gov,2008). Business Strategy: The new investment strategy is being formulated to balance risk and return and to improve chances of reaching full funding over the long run. According to this strategy diversified set of fixed-income investments and diversified equity investments both will be given 45% of its assets each and 10% will be given to alternative investment. Financial Information: A deficit of $18. 1 billion was being posted by insurance program for single-employer pension plans in fiscal year 2006. Due to the airline relief provisions in the Pension Protection Act, the corporation managed to reduce its probable liabilities. This led to a $4. 7 billion net improvement. It announces maximum insurance benefit for 2009. The amount would be higher for those who retire later and vise versa. The corporation had a peak year in 2000 when they had a surplus of $10 billion almost which was followed by surplus of $8 billion in 2001. The corporation got the calls in order to stop charging premiums. It got around $9 billion claims in 2002. The claims were because of airline and steel industry. (www. soa. org, n. d. ).

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Realization from the film Muriel’s Wedding

Muriel’s wedding is a tragic-comedy film written and directed by P.J Hogan. This Australian film conveys various aspects related with change.   The main concepts of change seen from this movie are change in perspective and in attitude within the persona, ensuing from the understanding of whom you are and how to get there. Muriel's wedding reveals these concepts through Muriel's discovery of herself, and realizing that real life still continue to possess different trials that needs be overcome in order to achieve real growth. Muriel Heslop, a hopeless romantic, overweight girl who lives in Porpoise Spit, Australia, with her parents and four siblings. Muriel lives her life in the fantasy world of Abba song and dreaming about getting married. She thinks that getting married is the best way for her to find the perfect happiness. Muriel's character is not that positive. She has a low self-esteem and she looks herself as useless being. She lies, she steals and even tries to change her own identity, but in the end, she realized that all the things she had done would not give her the happiness her looking for. Muriel life in Porpoise Spit is miserable. Her relationship to her family is quite undesirable. Bill Heslop, Muriel’s father, is a corrupt politician who is completely despicable man. He always tries to impress people with his connection and still manage to find his time to degrade his family. His slogan â€Å"You Can't Stop Progress† but he manages to stop the progress of everyone in his family, by labeling them as useless and embarrassment, except for Muriel. On the other side, Betty, Muriel’ mother, a painstakingly frightened woman who is treated by her children l and husband like a slave. Like Muriel, her mother was also arrested for stealing. Betty looked to be very lonely and unattached to reality herself because she gets all the blame from Muriel’s father for Muriel stealing their money. Betty died, a speculated suicide, after Muriel’s father wants to have a divorce to live with someone he is having an affair. Both Muriel and her mother appeared to have a lot in common as far as the ability to separate their selves from reality. Another major character in the film was Rhoda, an old friend of Muriel from school that she meets on the trip. They both to get along with each other, then, Muriel realized that now she has more confident in herself and found someone who can call her a real friend. Rhoda has her own problem, she has a cancer and confined on a wheelchair and having her own crisis identity. Although Muriel and Rhoda are always having fun, still Muriel is unhappy because she really thinks that getting married will give her the prefect happiness. So, with the help of Rhoda, Muriel change her identity by changing her name to Mariel. Then, eventually, she got married to an Olympic swimmer who only needs to have an Australian passport. Muriel think that she got the best option because she thinks that she’s hitting a bird in one stone, living in her fantasy of being a bride and wife and at the same time getting money to pay her father back. This perception of Muriel is like a â€Å"falsification of view†; that being a wife is all that she needs because her parents will also be happy, and at the same time, she can live her friend. But when Muriel’s mother died, she came into realization that everything she’ve done really doesn’t give her the happiness she is looking for. She also realized that she never loved her husband at all. She wants to stop lying. She don’t want to â€Å"Mariel† anymore which she created when she was in Sydney. She ended up finding again her happiness in Sydney by helping her friend, Rhoda. She too helped her father realize the mistakes he had made with them. All these she did through discovering her identity (happiness). She no longer needed to be â€Å"Mariel†, Muriel found herself, Muriel. She was always there inside herself not knowing she was inside because she was just too busy looking inside of her fantasy world. Reference: Ebert, Roger.Muriel’s Wedding.March,1995.   

Friday, November 8, 2019

Cell Permeability essays

Cell Permeability essays Most cells are freely permeable to water that diffuses through aquaporins (water channels) in the selectively permeable plasma membrane. This movement of water is termed osmosis and occurs in response to an osmotic pressure gradient across the cell membrane. The osmolality of a solution is the total concentration of particles of solute, measured by the number of osmotically active particles per kg-1 of water (Boron A solution with a higher osmolarity is hyperosmotic, and one with lower osmolarity is described as being hypoosmotic. The tonicity of a solution describes the effect of that solution on the volume of the cells suspended in it, and is sometimes referred to as the effective osmolality (Boron RBC's placed in a hypertonic solution will lose water, and shrink. This is termed crenation, where the shape of the RBC becomes shrivelled and spikey in appearance (Tortora and Derrickson, 2009). If the RBCs are placed in hypotonic solution, they swell until they are spherical in shape. Further swelling will cause rupture of th...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Summary of the Medea Tragedy by Euripides

Summary of the Medea Tragedy by Euripides The plot of the Greek poet Euripides Medea tragedy is convoluted and messy, rather like its antihero, Medea. It was first performed at the Dionysian Festival in 431 BCE, where it famously won third (last) prize against entries by Sophocles and Euphorion. In the opening scene, the nurse/narrator tells us that Medea and Jason have lived together for some time as husband and wife in Corinth, but theirs is a troubled union. Jason and Medea met at Colchis, where King Pelias had sent him to capture the magical golden fleece from Medeas father King Aaetes. Medea saw and fell in love with the handsome young hero, and so, despite her fathers desire to retain possession of the precious object, helped Jason to escape. The couple fled first Medeas Colchis, and then after Medea was instrumental in the death of King Pelias at Iolcos, fled that region, finally arriving at Corinth. Medea Is Out, Glauce Is In At the opening of the play, Medea and Jason are already the parents of two children during their life together, but their domestic arrangement is about to end. Jason and his father-in-law-to-be, Creon, tell Medea that she and her children must leave the country so that Jason may marry Creons daughter Glauce in peace. Medea is blamed for her own fate and told that if she hadnt behaved like a jealous, possessive woman, she could have remained in Corinth. Medea asks for and is granted one days reprieve, but King Creon is fearful, and rightly so. During that one days time, Medea confronts Jason. He retaliates, blaming Medeas banishment on her own temper. Medea reminds Jason of what she has sacrificed for him and what evil she has done on his behalf. She reminds him that since she is from Colchis and is, therefore, a foreigner in Greece and without a Greek mate, she will not be welcome anywhere else. Jason tells Medea that he has given her enough already, but that he will recommend her to the care of his friends (and he has many as witnessed by the gathering of the Argonauts). Jasons Friends and Medeas Family Jasons friends need not be bothered because as it turns out Aegeus of Athens arrives and agrees that Medea may find refuge with him. With her future assured, Medea turns to other matters. Medea is a witch. Jason knows this, as do Creon and Glauce, but Medea seems appeased. She presents a wedding gift to Glauce of a dress and crown, and Glauce accepts them. The theme of poisoned clothing should be familiar to those who know of  the death of Hercules. When Glauce puts on the robe it burns her flesh. Unlike Hercules, she immediately dies. Creon dies, too, trying to help his daughter. Although thus far, Medeas motives and reactions seem at least understandable, then Medea does the unspeakable. She slaughters her own two children. Her revenge comes when she witnesses Jasons horror as she flies off to Athens in the chariot of the sun god Helios (Hyperion), her ancestor.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Revolutionary Leadership in Russian Revolution and the Arab Spring Essay

Revolutionary Leadership in Russian Revolution and the Arab Spring - Essay Example To start with, the general complexity of the given cases is the reason for drawing on their similarities and differences. In fact, it is not right to comprehend all the three revolutions in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia as a general phenomenon. Moreover, it is hard to comprehend an overall process of the Russian revolution in a sketch too. Thus, it is necessary to determine the key leadership and the starting conditions of these four countries in order to provide any comparison between them. On the one hand, Anderson (2011) believes that Arab countries are different among all in terms of their economic ground and social fabric. In other words, by referring to the Arab Spring countries we consider three different in their internal environment states (Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya). For instance, the main forces for change in Tunisia were the local trade union (UGTT), lawyers, and journalists; but in Egypt, the revolution was headed by linked to the political opposition the April 6 Movement. H ence, the leadership of the Arab Spring is not the same not only in terms of concrete personalities but also in the social background of these forces. Furthermore, the key problems that encouraged these countries to change are also not the same. In the days prevailing the revolution, Tunisia was a tourist-oriented and powerful. In fact, the revolution in this country emerged as a response to the way â€Å"the Ben Ali family plundered the economy and repressed all autonomous attempts at political expressions†.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Ecological Design A strategy for business practice Dissertation - 1

Ecological Design A strategy for business practice - Dissertation Example Development of an eco design through research and subsequently incorporating the same in a business operation is the challenge faced by most companies. This general factors influencing eco design, the areas of change where eco design is applicable, the methods adopted by companies in introducing products and the manner in which an eco design is integrated with business operations form a part of this dissertation. Eco-Design is the design and development of products that are both environment friendly and economically viable. The word derives its origins from the concept of a synergy between design, economy and ecology. (Miriam Borchardt, Leonel A.C.Poltosi, Miguel A Sellito and Gianfraco M.Pereira, 2009) A design which is able to satisfy all three requirements in an effective manner is said to be a successful eco-designed product. With the world globalising at a fast rate there has been a rapid increase in the both the demand and consumption of goods. New players emerging and competin g in the global market, has put a severe strain on the available natural resources and the idea of creating a environment friendly product has been relegated to the background. The three basic issues that an eco-design addresses are (1) The new age customer is getting more information regarding the dangers of environment pollution. He is thus getting more informed regarding the choices he can make while selecting a product. Thus he is able to demand products that are safe and environment friendly which leads to a direct pressure.