Monday, September 30, 2019
UNIVERSIDAD DEL PACIFICO TRABAJO FINAL DE GERENCIA ALUMNO: FREDDY ALEMAN QUIROZ TEMA: OPINION SOBRE Ã¢â¬Å"THE FUTURE OF MANAGEMENTÃ¢â¬ EL FUTURO DE LA GESTION Desde hace varios anos existe gran demanda de los libros sobre administracion, liderazgo, innovacion, etc. es decir de los libros sobre negocios, todos ellos reflejan un gran optimismo y te dicen como llegar al exito, los best seller sobre este tema siempre tratan sobre experiencias de empresas exitosas bajo la idea de que cualquiera puede lograrlo, pero todos son generales despues de la batalla y escriben libros para contar sus hazanas( su modelo de negocio) en el que cada uno nos cuenta su experiencia, pero definitivamente nunca nos cuentan todo. Gary Hamel es uno de esos escritores que han llamado la atencion desde hace anos, (graduado de la Universidad de Andrews y la Roos School of Business de la Universidad de Michigan, es el fundador de Strategos, una empresa internacional de consultoria de gestion), es uno de los mas exitosos escritores sobre negocios. Es asi que en la Maestria en Administracion de la Universidad del Pacifico, en el afan de introducirnos dentro de las mas actuales tendencias sobre administracion llega a nuestras mentes la ultima publicacion de este Ã¢â¬Å"guru de la estrategia en el mundoÃ¢â¬ (The Economist), Ã¢â¬ el innovador sin par de la gerencia en el mundoÃ¢â¬ (Fortune) con su libro Ã¢â¬Å"The Future of ManagementÃ¢â¬ , en el cual nos explica en su primera parte que parece que la administracion como ciencia ha alcanzado su maximo desarrollo y que a lo largo de estos anos ya hemos dominado, en cierta forma, la ciencia de organizar personas, asignar recursos, establecer y definir planes y objetivos, minimizar los errores de procedimientos y que la administracion posiblemente ya haya resuelto sus problemas mas dificiles, y es por eso que se pregunta cual es el futuro de esta ciencia, dice que ha habido poca innovacion en la administracion y la direccion de empresas en los ultimos 20 o 30 anos. Pero Hamel nos dice que esto no es cierto y que a pesar de sus indiscutibles logros hasta ahora, tales como superar complicados problemas triunfando en dividir tareas complejas en pequenos y repetitivos pasos, en que se cumplan y se hagan procesos operativos estandarizados, en medir costos y beneficios hasta el ultimo sol, en coordinar los esfuerzos de miles de trabajadores y en sincronizar operaciones a escala global. Sin embargo hace tambien que las personas se ajusten a las reglas desperdiciando grandes cantidades de imaginacion e iniciativa humana, es por eso que la administracion moderna nos ha legado una serie de dificiles preguntas, que complican disyuntivas que necesitan de un pensamiento muy audaz y nuevos enfoques porque ahora tenemos nuevos problemas, dificultades y dilemas que ponen en evidencia los limites de nuestros actuales y desgastados sistemas y procesos administrativos, y que si bien a originado la multiplicacion del poder adquisitivo de los consumidores de todo el mundo, al mismo tiempo a esclavizado a millones en empresas casi feudales; ha ayudado a que los negocios sean mas eficientes, pero pone en peligro la adaptacion organizacional. Entonces, mientras en la practica la administracion no esta evolucionando a la velocidad que una vez lo hizo, el futuro de los negocios en el siglo XXI no puede ser mas volatil, por eso Hamel nos muestra una cantidad de nuevos retos administrat ivos: Ã¢â¬ ¢ En el entorno cambiante en que vivimos el liderazgo del mercado cambia constantemente de manos y las ventajas competitivas se reducen mas rapido que antes. Las desregulacion, junto con los efectos de la nueva tecnologia estan reduciendo dramaticamente las barreras de entrada en muchas industrias, lo que origina que los oligopolios se esten rompiendo y que la competencia esta incrementandose anarquicamente. Ã¢â¬ ¢ El Internet esta pasando el poder de negociacion de productores a consumidores, antes las companias se aprovechaban de la lealtad de los clientes y les vendian casi cualquier cosa, hoy en dia los clientes saben exigir calidad y no hay espacio para productos o servicios mediocres. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Los ciclos de vida de las estrategias se estan reduciendo. Ã¢â¬ ¢ La baja de los costos de comunicacion y globalizacion estan abriendo competidores con costos ultra-bajos. Ante estos nuevos retos se necesitan nuevas capacidades organizacionales y administrativas, por eso las companias deben adaptarse mas rapidamente en sus estrategias y ser igual de eficientes, tienen que volverse pioneros de las innovaciones y deben saber como inspirar a sus trabajadores para que den lo mejor de si mismos todos los dias. Pero esto no es nada facil, estamos metidos en nuestro paradigma administrativo, el cual esta centrado en la eficiencia y en la burocracia (Taylor y Weber) que es el principio organizativo de casi todas las empresas del mundo. Por eso es necesaria una completa revolucion, hay que pensar hacia delante, hay que imaginar primero y despues inventar el futuro de la administracion. La segunda parte del libro nos dice que debemos reinventar la administracion mediante la innovacion administrativa que es la que nos va a dar poder para crear cambios dramaticos y duraderos y sobretodo producira beneficios. Pero ? Que es la innovacion administrativa? Es Ã¢â¬Å"cualquier cosa que substancialmente cambia la manera en la que el trabajo de administrar es llevado, y que modifica significativamente las formas habituales de la administracion adelantando las metas organizacionalesÃ¢â¬ Pero lo explica de varias formas: Ã¢â¬Å"las innovaciones administrativas tambien comprenden cambios que crean valor para las estructuras organizacionales y para los papeles que desempenan las personasÃ¢â¬ como ejemplo podemos decir que las empresas consisten de unidades de negocios, departamentos, trabajadores, proveedores, socios y consumidores, por lo tanto una nueva forma de conectar todo esto puede constituir una innovacion administrativa. Ojo que es diferente a una innovacion operacional que se concentra en los procedimientos de negocio de una compania (compras, marketing, servicio al cliente, etc. ), las innovaciones administrativas se enfocan en los procesos administrativos de una empresa, es decir las formas y rutinas que determinan como el t rabajo administrativo es hecho dia a dia. Asimismo nos muestra como empresas lideres como General Electric, Procter & Gamble, y Toyota, alcanzaron el exito no solamente gracias a buenos productos, ejecucion disciplinada y buena vision, sino que fue la innovacion administrativa la que los llevo a la grandeza: Ã¢â¬ ¢ General Electric uso la disciplina administrativa en el descubrimiento cientifico, es decir, organizo sus laboratorios y GE fue la que gano mas patentes que cualquier compania en la primera mitad del siglo XX . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Procter & Gamble en la decada de los 30s creo las marcas haciendo la novedad de crear valor de los activos intangibles. A partir de alli P&G a crecido en base a la creacion y administracion de grandes marcas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Toyota es el fabricante de automoviles mas rentable del mundo y gran parte de su exito se baso en su sistema Ã¢â¬Å"de gente pensanteÃ¢â¬ para olucionar problemas complejos por ideas de mejoras de empleados ordinarios. Siendo entonces la innovacion administrativa tan importante ? co mo exactamente estas crean ventajas competitivas? , La respuesta es que las innovaciones administrativas tienden a dar ventajas competitivas cuando se satisfacen una o mas de estas tres condiciones: Ã¢â¬ ¢ La innovacion esta basada en un principio de administracion nuevo que reta a uno que esta desde antes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ La innovacion es sistemica, abarcando un rango de procesos y metodos. Ã¢â¬ ¢ La innovacion es parte de un programa de invencion, que existe actualmente y en el que el progreso se acumula alo largo del tiempo. Las innovaciones pueden ser de diferentes maneras: (en orden de importancia de arriba hacia abajo, en base a los niveles de creacion de valor): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Innovacion Administrativa Ã¢â¬ ¢ Innovacion estrategica Ã¢â¬ ¢ Innovacion en el producto o servicio Ã¢â¬ ¢ Innovacion operativa Ahora, hay que hacer la salvedad de que no toda innovacion administrativa crea una ventaja competitiva, ademas ningun descubrimiento administrativo significativo, no importa que tan audaz o bien ejecutado este, va a darnos ventajas competitivas para siempre, es por todo esto que los gerentes son muy escepticos respecto a las innovaciones ya que son, en su mayoria personas pragmaticas, que no imaginan y que se quedan realizando una y otra vez lo que dice la teoria. Despues de todo lo dicho, Hamel nos muestra un modelo de programa de accion para la Innovacion Administrativa. , basandose en una serie de preguntas que pueden ser utiles para identificar primero la necesidad de una innovacion ( se plantean problemas principales y sugiere solucionarlos con el metodo de Descartes) y luego plantea los siguientes retos respecto a la administracion del futuro: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Acelerar dramaticamente el paso de la renovacion estrategica en organizaciones grandes y pequenas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hacer de la innovacion un trabajo de todos, todos los dias. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Crear un ambiente laborar altamente atractivo que inspire a los empleados para que den lo mejor de si. Reitero que esto es muy dificil de lograr, pero hacerlo sera grandioso ademas, si tal como hemos visto que las empresas lideres han logrado progresar y tener beneficios de una y muchas innovaciones administrativas, sera mediante la constante innovacion que seguiran en el mercado. Es en esta parte en que Gary Hamel despues de darnos todo su punto de vista, dice que el objeto de este libro no es determinar el futuro de la administracion y la direccion de empresas, sino a ayudar a los lectores que lo inventen, por lo tanto nos deja una tarea muy grande, pero a medida que la hagamos obtendremos el exito y beneficios para nuestras empresas. FREDDY ALEMAN QUIROZ
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The belief in Manifest Destiny, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s right to expand westward, was popular among the Democratic Party, which paved the path for conflict in U.S. politics. In the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s, Manifest Destiny was used as justification for the annexation of Texas, the war with Mexico, and to acquire portions of Oregon from the British. The debate over whether America really had a manifest destiny to expand all the way west or if it was used as an excuse to acquire more land led to debates in U.S. politics. Advocates of manifest destiny, mostly democratic, argued that the U.S., as a more advanced culture, had a God-given right to expand its borders. They believed the expansion would civilize the West and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic, cultural, and religious values would benefit the Native Americans. In addition, supporters would argue that the belief would strengthen the union, making it invulnerable. On the opposing side, consisting mostly of the Whig party, the God-given right to expand all the way westward at the price and rights of thousands of innocent natives was blasphemy. The Whig party was not manifest destinies only critic, abolitionist, fearful of slavery spreading, argued that the constitution did not give the country the right to gain new land and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s vital institutions would suffer as A merica was spread too thin. Look more:Ã essays on manifest destiny TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ sought to join America as a new state, after it gained independence from Mexico and had a revolution. The process of expansion in which newly democratic and free states would seek entry into the United States, rather than the U.S. extending its government over unwanting people was ideal. The Democratic Party was threatened to fall apart if Texas entered the Union, as it would become another slave state and this forced both Presidents Jackson and Van Buren to decline TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ plea. During the election of 1844, both Henry Clay of the Whig Party and Van Buren of the Democratic Party were against the annexation of Texas, this displeased the Democrats as they wanted to gain Texas so they dropped Van Buren in favor of James Polk, who was for adding Texas as another slave state. Polk cleverly tied TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ annexation into the Oregon dispute, the controversy over OregonÃ¢â¬â¢s border. In 1846 the dispute was settled over the Oregon Treaty where the British relinquished its holding to the lower Colombia basin. This appeased expansionist in the north, who fought for Oregon and expansionist in the south, who focused primarily on Texas. After PolkÃ¢â¬â¢s election, he moved to occupy a free portion of Texas that was still claimed by Mexico. This sparked the Mexican-American War in 1846, were there were calls for Ã¢â¬Å"All MexicoÃ¢â¬ , mostly from Eastern Democrats, however MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s annexation brought up much debate. If Mexico were to become a part of the United States it would mean millions of non-white Mexicans would become U.S. citizens, something Americans were not too keen on. The racist aspect of Manifest Destiny considers inferior Mexicans unqualified to become Americans whereas the mission aspect of Manifest Destiny dictates that Mexicans would become improved under American democracy. The Ã¢â¬Å"All MexicoÃ¢â¬ movement quickly abated with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 which granted Alta California and Nuevo MÃ ©xico to the United States, both of which were sparsely populated with Mexicans. After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further annexation by conquest too divisive to be official government policy. The belief in Manifest Destiny in the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s greatly influenced both U.S. politics and policy and is to blame or thank for Americas expansion from Ã¢â¬Å"sea to shining sea.Ã¢â¬
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Sustainability has some main pillars or rather aspects and these aspects were identified in the year 2005 during the world summit on social development. These aspects contribute to the social science and philosophy of sustainable development. These aspects have formed the backbone of dealing with the main areas that the world focuses on. As described by Brundtland mission, sustainability is a development aspect which meets the present needs with no promise of the future generationsÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities in meeting their needs (Holden and Linnerud, p 175). Therefore the future has to be considered while making present decisions. The main two aspects include economic development ad environment aspects. Most people have had disagreements based on political ideologies regarding what is and is not economically sound. It has thus proven to be very problematic. The manner in which this aspect affects business, jobs and employability is also still a debatable issue. Economic development mostly deals with the process of how business incentives are provided in situations where such businesses and other organizations are supposed to adhere to the sustainable guidelines that are found beyond their normal requirements for legislation (Ellis and Moarif, p 11). This aspect also encourages and fosters incentives for an average person in which they are able to do their activities to the much they can. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s seen that an individual may not achieve as much as a group would have because for some effects to be felt they have to be cumulative. The consumer nature of the supply and demand market has made the need for many resources in the modern life to be very high on a daily basis. From the environmental aspect what matters most is how we get whatever that needs to be consumed. Therefore if people are given whatever they want with no promise to the quality of life then this is referred to as economic development. This is more relevant in the developing countries where reduction in the financial burden and the Ã¢â¬Ëred tapeÃ¢â¬â¢ of doing things right is still a big issue to deal with (Chan and Lee, p 249). For economic sustainability to be felt the human munity in the globe should be able to sustain their independence and gain access to the required resources as well as finances so as to meet their needs with ease. The systems of economy ought to be intact and all the activities be made available to everyone for instance their needs to be sources of livelihood that are secure enough. The economic sustainability is involved with ensuring that businesses in place are able to make profits and their operations do not in any way create environmental and social issues which are likely to harm the success of the business which may be envisioned to be long-term.Ã If any nation focuses on environmental and social issues the profitability of the economy will definitely flow. This is because most of the social initiatives tend to have a great impact on the behaviors of modity consumers as well as the performance of employees (Perrini, Russo and Tencati, p 291). On the other hand environmental initiatives like efficiency in energy supply and mitigation of pollution has a direct impact on waste reduction creating a good environment for the economy. Most people know what they need to do to protect the environment and especially from pollution. However the small things that have been neglected are some of key contributors to environmental pollution and thus loss in terms of sustainability. Such things like recycling, reduction in power consumption through switching off power when not in use, walking some short distances as opposed to using vehicles if assumed can lead to great environmental destruction. There are regulations for businesses in which they are supposed to keep the carbon emissions low as well as prevent pollution. Incentives exists which promote projects for installing power sources that are renewable in businesses and homes. This aspect is thus the main concern regarding the future of humanity (Dempsey, p 257). This aspect offers definition on how the environment should be protected and a lot of focus is placed on elements that seem to stress the environment. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s concerned with how technology can be used to drive a future that is green. The developments that focus on biotechnology and technology are important to attaining environmental sustainability and thus protect the future environment from any damage that may be caused by technological advances (UNPF, p 7). To attain environmental sustainability ecological integrity has to be maintained. The earthÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental systems need to be kept in balance and the natural resources in the environment need to be consumed by human beings at a rate in which they can replenish themselves. The systems and activities in place should also be able to reduce the impact of the environment on the environment. When it es to the resources that are renewable the rate at which they are harvested is not supposed to exceed the rate at which they regenerate back (Maslow, p 58). In relation to pollution the rate at which wastes are generated from the ongoing projects should not go beyond the capacity for assimilation by the environment. In case of the nonrenewable resources their depletion requires the development of substitutes that are renewable. Such goals include zero waste by the organization, reduction in the use of plastic bags and ing up with initiatives that reduce carbon footprint through management of energy consumption (Ebner, p 8). Some organizations like Nestle have identified the main priority areas regarding environmental sustainability such as agricultural raw materials, water, packaging that is specific to their beverages and food and manufacturing and distribution. In relation to energy use Verizon pany has initiatives that aim at environmental sustainability like the recycling of tel equipment and reduction in energy use through provision of flexible working conditions at work, it has also worked on reducingÃ intensity in carbon and getting some more efficient solutions to its fleet that is eco-friendly (Jackson, P 21). Therefore this environmental aspect aims at acknowledging the necessity o f enhancing and maintaining the biophysical systems which sustain life with a focus on the natural ecosystem structure and the interactions which exist among them. Innovative ideas have contributed a lot when it es to ensuring sustainability is achieved in different sectors such as environment, economic sector and even the social sector. Such innovations include; innovation from new light technologies have invented air carbon which is a plastic material that is carbon neutral produced from greenhouse gases such as methane (Eurostat P 15). This is used in the packaging and furniture industries in which it matches oil based plastics both in performance and price. This innovation has helped solve the issue of non biodegradable nature of plastic bags. High energy savings have also been archived by the use of view intelligent window. This window regulates the light and temperature of the room in which itÃ¢â¬â¢s used. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been mainly designed for mercial buildings so as to eliminate the need for shades and blinds. Outerwall pany has recently introduced outerwallecoATM which is a network of recycling kiosks that are automated for the tech products (Jacobs P 36). Customers can easily follow simple steps and be able to recycle old tablets and phones and any other electronics and receive cash in exchange. Powwow energy is an innovation in which unnecessary losses of resources especially water are prevented. The powwow energy detects any water leaks from an irrigation system that is used in agriculture and informs the farmers immediately for repair. The Retroficiency software is designed to fight losses of energy in buildings. The data sets are used by Retroficiency to make suggestions on energy saving ideas for both businesses and homes. It works on the bination of both energy analytics and the models of buildings with the use of data that they get from the already existing energy audits to give out ideas relating to energy saving. The BioTrans system is used in restaurants where itÃ¢â¬â¢s installed to collect and grind any leftovers into a biomass that is homogenous (Jenks and Dempsey, P 175). There has been the invention of DessoThe AirMaster a form of carpet which is used to capture pollutant particles and fine dust from rooms thus providing healthier indoor climates. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s made of recycled carpets and proves to be better than the hardwood flooring when related to prevention of allergies. From the discussion above its evident that sustainability is not just matters environment but in the many definitions of sustainability we are able to find the concerns about social equity and the development of the economy. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s in this regard that the motivations behind sustainability are in most cases diverse, plex and personal. It is almost unrealistic for one to e up with a list as to why many people are working hard to achieve this goal. Thus sustainability in most cases boils down to the future the current generation is leaving for the next generation. These aspects of sustainability are therefore shared by many people who aim at demonstrating their importance in developing many policies. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s therefore the duty of the people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation along with those of the future to create solutions that are adaptable and aim at fostering sustainability. When a pany chooses to define sustainability with the two aspects in mind then itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to determine its own successful road that is sustainable. If any one of the aspects is weak or given less attention then the whole system of an organization may b e unsustainable since they are both interlinked.Ã Chan E, and Lee GKL. 2008. Critical factors for improving social sustainability of urban renewal projects. Social Indicators Research 85: 243Ã¢â¬â256. Dempsey N. 2008b. Quality of the built environment in urban neighbourhoods. Planning Practice and Research 23: 249Ã¢â¬â264. Ebner D. 2008. Assessing Corporate Social Responsibility in Industrial Firms: the CSR-Assessment. Pg 8. MontanuniversitÃ ¤t Leoben Ellis, J. and Moarif, S., 2009. GHG mitigation actions: MRV issues and options. Draft for review. OECD/IEA Project for the Annex I Expert Group on the UNFCCC, Paris.pg 5-15 Eurostat, 2009. Measuring progress towards a more sustainable Europe. 2009 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy. Pg 13-19. Office for Official Publications of the European munities, Luxembourg. Holden E, and Linnerud K. 2007. The sustainable development area: satisfying basic needs and safeguarding ecological sustainability. Sustainable Development 15: 174Ã¢â¬â185. Jackson, T., 2009. Prosperity without growth? Transition to a sustainable economy. Sustainable Development mission, London p 21. Jacobs M. 1999. Sustainable development as a contested concept. In Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice, Dobson A (ed.). Oxford University Press: Oxford; 21Ã¢â¬â45. Jenks M and Dempsey N. 2007. Defining the neighbourhood: challenges for empirical research. Town Planning Review 78: 153Ã¢â¬â177. Maslow, H.A., 1968. Toward Psychology of Being, 3rd Edition 1999. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Pg 55-61. Perrini F, Russo A and Tencati A. 2007. CSR strategies of SMEs and large fi rms. Evidence from Italy. Journal of Business Ethics 74(3): 285Ã¢â¬â300. UNPF (United Nations Population Fund). 2007. State of World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. UNFPA: New York. Pg 4-10.Ã
Friday, September 27, 2019
Analysis of the Public Policy Process of the United States Governance System - Essay Example lex for countries to make and implement foreign policy since increased globalisation has made the distinction between domestic and foreign policy rather blurred (Russell, 2000). What is more, in current times, even domestic decisions by cross-border and global effects. A good illustration of this assertion is the 2008 global financial crisis in which local decisions by states affected the wider globe. Nonetheless, it is still of great importance to learn and understand how each country makes its foreign policy and to appreciate how democratic these processes are. In the United States, the Constitution is the foundation of the foreign policy, especially, the making and the implementation of these policies. However, since historical times, foreign policy and constitutional experts have felt that the constitution has been a source of intrigues and struggles between the executive and the Congress with regards to the making of foreign policy in the U.S. Comparatively, the US has been found to apply a rather cumbersome process in making its foreign policy compared to those of other democracies such as Europe states. Although the provisions and safeguards entrenched in the US Constitutions are well intentioned and offer checks to tyrannical tendencies, they have often been the causes of struggles and tension between the executive and the legislature (Russell, 2000). Thus, these safeguards have made it rather difficult to formulate and implement foreign policy besides creating uncertainty on what the policies actually are. Consequent to this lack of clarity, foreign governments and interest groups have exploitatively pressured the USÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy for own benefits. Due to the roles of the executive and the legislature in foreign policy formulation and implementation, it becomes rather difficult to recognise and discern the main actors of foreign policy in the U.S (Russell, 2000). In the US, just like in most other countries, the three arms of the government; the
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Analyze Friendships Mysteries, to my Dearest LucasiaandOn Being Brought .. To S. M., A Young - Essay Example yÃ¢â¬âan ode to a loved oneÃ¢â¬âand manipulating and taking a huge innovative step forward by switching the identity of the speaker, by making it a poem about two women loving one another. She is also taking a rebellious stand against male hierarchy and saying lesbians are as good as anyone else. Wheatley too was a rebel: the first published African American poet. Indeed, few people at the time could believe that a black woman could write so well: she was even challenged in court on the subject. She too brings religion into the picture writing in her poems, trying to show that all people are equal and worthy of respect. For example, she writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain,/May be refind, and join th angelic trainÃ¢â¬ She also worked hard to promote the works of other African Americans as in her poem Ã¢â¬Å"To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works.Ã¢â¬ Her criticism and poetry helped definitively shape African American literature, much the way that PhilipsÃ¢â¬â¢ poetry shaped lesbian literature. They are both
Explication of Shakespeare Passage - Essay Example By Ã¢â¬Å"PowderÃ¢â¬ Friar refers to gunpowder and triumph of fire and gunpowder is the bright show of fireworks that happen when the two come into contact. Consume means consume each other. Once the fireworks is over, theres nothing left. Just observe the smoke! Friar explains that the ecstasy of love is not an everlasting feature; the experience of such pleasures is impermanent and fleeting. This is Friars metaphor. "The sweetest honey / Is loathsome in his own deliciousness / And in the taste confounds the appetite" (2.6.11-13). Even the sweetest honey consumed in quantity over and over again, will lead to vomiting-sensation. Even the best of things, need to be appreciated moderately. The Friar, in conclusion, advises Romeo to "love moderately; long love doth so; / Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow" (2.6.14-15). He wants him to tread the path of love with utmost caution, and think properly about the consequences of his actions. This is s story engulfed in bitter conflicts related to love. This love-hate situations develop in strange circumstances and all of a sudden! The play is set in Verona, Italy. In a street brawl between the two feuding families, Montagues and Capulets, The Prince of Verona intervenes and cautions them that further breach of peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris takes up the issue with Lord Capulet about marrying his daughter but Capulet doesnt agree as Juliet is only thirteen. He asks Paris to wait for two more years and requests him to attend a preplanned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and the nurse of Juliet persuade Juliet to accept courtship of Paris. In a scene at the house of Montague, Benvolio has a talk with his cousin Romeo, Lord Montagues son, about his recent depression. The root cause is Romeos infatuation for a girl named Rosaline, one of Capulets nieces. On being persuaded by
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Influence of Integration Managerial Accounting Skills on Small and Medium Enterprises Business toward the Success and Growth of SMEs in Thailand - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that SME has always been a very important aspect of the growth of national economies. Therefore, it becomes quite necessary to maintain the stability of the SME. The past evidence has the given enough of the significant contributions made by these SME toward the growth of an economy. The concentration of the SME within an economy is very higher and they face the completion from other SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s and multinational enterprises. Therefore, maintaining a sustainable SME is the quite challenging task that requires a very effective integration managerial accounting skills. Besides, Thailand is rapidly developing the nation and in this regard, Thai SMEs have played a very vital role. Thai Government also strives to impose effective policies for SME developments. However, the government keeps trying to bring economic prosperity through SME development. On the other, the growth of SME also depends on the managerial skills of accounting and others. Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) has identified the accounting skill set that includes analysis, strategy, risk, planning, and communication. In context to the rapid development of the Thai economy, the role of managerial practices in the growth of SME should be assessed for future of development. SMEs are exposed to a number of risks and challenges due to their vulnerable nature and size. The primary aim of the managerial practices in to overcome these challenge. Therefore, in order to present the theoretical background relating to this topic, the necessary theories that must be explained are managerial accounting skills like costing systems, risk management, budgeting, performance evaluation, financial communication and information for decision making and strategic analysis. Based on the core management accounting skills that include five major aspects i.e. financial communication and information, performance evaluation, risk management, and financial planning four hypotheses are framed and these are given.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Public Administration and Analytical Observations on the works of T. J. Lowi - Research Paper Example The Entrepreneurial Republicans were the ones that celebrated the free enterprise system and sought reduction, even elimination, of taxes and government regulations. The Evangelical Republicans perceived a shocking social decay and hunger around them for the return of a moral community made its basis on Christian certitude. The Eurocentric Republicans feared cultural relativism in their institutions through the mixing of racial minorities and illegal aliens in their midst, along with loss of jobs in the new global economy. This alliance was significantly white and male dominated in its composition, and has set the tone of the contemporary political debate in the United States. Theodore J. Lowi examines the nature of this coalition and its internal contradictions in his school of thought, and writings. In doing so, Lowi traces the foundation and potential demise of both the current Republican majority and Republican government in the United States. In Ã¢â¬Å"The End of the Republican EraÃ¢â¬ , Theodore J. Lowi predicts not only a collapse of the Republican coalition but also the potential collapse of the United States' republican experiment at large. Professing that the ideologies of dominant political coalitions contain the seeds of their own destruction, Lowi suggests that the efforts of a new conservative Right to enforce a national, religion-based morality has brought about the demise of the Republican era. Section ii: The life of Theodore J. Lowi Theodore J. Lowi, the John L. Senior Professor of American Institutions at Cornell University, is a highly acclaimed political scientist and an expert on the American presidency. He was the former President of the American Political Science Association (1998). He is currently first vice president of the International Political Science Association and a member of its research committee on world pluralism and minority representation. LowiÃ¢â¬â¢s works are primarily ideological exegesis. He has written numerous bo oks, including Ã¢â¬Å"The End of Liberalism,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The End of the Republican Era,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Democrats Return to Power: Politics and Policy in the Clinton Era,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Pursuit of Justice,Ã¢â¬ which was co-authored with Robert F. Kennedy. Section iii: Analyze and discuss scholarÃ¢â¬â¢s work/Summary of LowiÃ¢â¬â¢s Reasoning and Argument The main argument of Lowi stood that Ã¢â¬Å"Interest-group liberalismÃ¢â¬ fights against democracy and good government, thus taking away its authoritativeness. Lowi believed that such liberalism corrupted the democratic government by treating all values as equivalent interests. By confusing expectations about democratic institutions, it rendered these institutions impotent. Additionally, it rusted the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities by multiplication in the number of available plans, but no addressing towards their implementation. According to Lowi, Ã¢â¬Å"Interest-group liberalismÃ¢â¬ demoralizes government because without a value-system, it is unable achieve justice, which is then obviously not an issue for discussion. It decreases the necessary importance of formal procedures and rules, thus allowing too much informal bargaining. Lowi, in fact, argues against Truman that Ã¢â¬Å"Interest-group liberalismÃ¢â¬ fails because it neither tries to, nor can recognize the greater national interests. Theodore J. LowiÃ¢â¬â¢s Overview on Liberalism Lowi illustrates the ideological
Monday, September 23, 2019
Reflective Review - Essay Example In the process, they critically analyse strong and weak points as well as asses the opportunities and threats that can improve or compromise their professional achievements. Ignorance of the reflection stage in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is a common mistake based on the misguided notion that reflection is a stupid activity similar to soul searching which is largely subjective. On the contrary, reflection is a very objective and very specific process through which we contemplate our past, earn form our mistake through a deliberate observation of our lives through the disinterested eyes it requires we use. Therefore, one of the models of reflecting one can assume is an imaginary dialogue with younger version of themselves. I selected this particular model so that I could consider my growth in the eyes of the person who originated many of the ambitions I am striving to achieve. My career pathway was very clear to start with, I knew I wanted to work in marketing because I had been inspired and me ntored by my father who had been a successful marketer for as long as I could remember. After high school, I applied to study business in college with the intention of majoring in marketing. College has taught me invaluable lessons both from inside and outside the classroom about how to improve my chances of success while am on the business pathway, especially the many skills that I need to acquire so as to improve my employability and make me more marketable in the corporate world. For one, I have come to appreciate the need for taking the initiative in whatever I do, as opposed to waiting to be directed or instructed. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world requires innovation and creativity, therefore I have learnt to think outside the convectional parameters, and otherwise when by simply doing thing according to the textbooks you will likely only produce mediocre results. Social work is a vital part of my business-oriented pathway considering that business involves interacting with people and convincing them to visit in the product you are selling. This often requires that one presents himself as trustworthy and dependable, in the words of one of my lecturers who introduced me to marketing and finance, when one markets products, he or she has to put themselves in the market first and if the client decides that they are a worth investment, they can risk putting their money on them. Therefore, in addition to my business classes, I enrolled to a few sociology classes; moreover, I spent some of my free time volunteering to do social work and community service in our local church fund drive. These excursions provided me with numerous opportunities to learn interpersonal interaction, when you talk to people even especially when you are not trying to sell them something. I developed confidence and even more importantly gradually learnt how to make people trust me, it not difficult really, all one needs to do is to be sincere and passionate. This is because once people beli eve what one is saying; they are more inclined to believe him as opposed to when they think you have an ulterior motive. In addition, I have come to realize that business and politics are inseparable, no matter how talented or bright one thinks he/she is, they must recognize the hierarchy that exists. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s seniors must be respected and even when one sometimes feels
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Achievement Motivation Essay What is it? This links personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual. Its main focus is the extent to which an individual is motivated to attain success. Some Theories about it Ã Murray (1938) indicated that it was natural for individual to strive to surpass another (genetically) like trait. Bandura (1977) believed that a competitive drive was a product of learning (social learning). Atkinson and McCelland (1976) has the view of an interactionist and predicts achievement motivation is generated through a combination of personality and situation factors. Atkinson and McCelland view of achievement motivation as a personality trait which is activated by a situation, the situation comprises the probability of success and the incentive value of success. -Probability of success;the extent to which success is likely;For example success is more likely of the task is found by the individual to be easy. -Incentive value of success;the incentive value experienced by the individual after success-been achieved. For example the harder the task the greater will be the incentive value because the probability of success is reduced. There are two personality types to determine achievement motivation and these are; 1.High need to achieve (high Nach) Linked with the low need to avoid failure (Low Naf). With these characteristic, desire to succeed overcomes the fear of failure. These performers=high in achievement motivation (high achievers) 2.Low need to achieve (Low Nach) Also linked with high need to avoid failure (High Naf). These characteristics the fear of failure overcome the desire to success. These performers=low in achievement motivation (low achievers) Characteristics of high and low achievement motivation personality traits. High Nach Personality Characteristics Low Nach personality characteristics High need to achieve Low need to achieve Low need to avoid failure High need to avoid failure Approach behaviour is adopted Avoidance behaviour is adopted Challenges is accepted Challenges is rejected Risks are undertaken Risks are declined Shows persistence and perseverance when task is difficult Curtails effort when task is difficult Success tends to be attributed to external factors Failure tends to be attributed to internal factors Failure is seen as a route to success Failure is seen as the route to further failure Aspire to mastery orientation Adopt learned helpessness Key Terms Approach behaviour-describes behaviour that accepts a challenge Avoidance behaviour-describes behaviour that rejects a challenge Attribution-The process that predict reasons for success or failure Mastery Orientation-The strong motive to succeed found in the high achievement. This type of person will expect to succeed but will persist when failure is experienced Learned helplessness-The belief that failure is inevitable and that the individual has no control over the factors that cause failure. Atkinson and McCelland Their theory of achievement motivation is best at predicting behavioural responses in situations where there is a 50/50 chance of success. This will trigger motivation for those performers with high achievement traits=likelyÃ to display approach behaviour and mastery orientation characteristics in these circumstances. Incentive value=high when chance is evenly balanced. In contrast to performers who show low achievement motivation would experience greatest anxiety in situations with a 50/50 chance of successÃ¢â¬â later adopt avoidance behaviour and experience learned helplessness. Approach or avoidance behaviours likely to arise when in a evaluative situation=Situation in which an individual believes they are being assessed. Drawbacks 1.Achievement or success can interpreted in many ways. Some performers regard success as victory over others. For example a long jump athlete winning an event. These people are said to have ego goal orientation. Those with this believe that ability and comparison over others=criteria for success. 2.Others judge on the basis of person improvement in a given task-For example a second long jump athlete may view success as the achievement of an improved performance. These people are said to have task orientation. Those with the task orientation value internal goals and believe that effort and comparison with self=criteria for success. Sport Specific Achievement Motivation(Competitiveness) Competitiveness in this context means- motivation to achieve in sport. Gill and Deeter (1988), using their own test called the Ã¢â¬ËSport Orientation QuestionnaireÃ¢â¬â¢ (SOQ), confirmed that athletes were far more competitive than non-athletes. As as statement, this would appear obvious. Evidence of greater significance-athletes favoured performance goals (task orientation) while non-athletes emphasised the importance of winning (ego orientation) The type of goal set by the teacher as the measure of success in sport-related activities has, therefore, a significant influence upon the decision to adopt and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle. The important association between sport-specific motivation (competitiveness), confidence and goal setting.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Influence Of Demographics On Leadership Styles Quantitative research methodology were applied in this study to identify leadership styles in current state Islamic Banking managers need to be successful in their position, This study also integrated quantitative methodology to explain current state Islamic Banking leaders in terms of their demographics and leadership styles. The primary purpose of this study was to identify and describe the leadership styles of current managers or leaders in Islamic Banking, in terms of their leadership styles and their demographics (autocratic, democratic, and laissez faire),( gender, age, Tenure) in describing current managers. Introduction Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing. People who can influence the behaviors of others, Are able to influence without having to rely on force, are accepted by others as leaders, who exhibit the leadership practice Challenge the Process are not bound by the status quo, are open to innovation, and encourage risk-taking within the organization, Inspire a Shared Vision are able to look ahead and see what the organization can be while at the same time enlisting the efforts of others in the achieving the common goals of the organizational vision, By engaging in behaviors characteristic of the Enabling Others to Act practice transfer power to others in the culture of the organization, participate others in the decision making processes and ultimately build trust and mutual respect between each other. Leaders also Model the Way set examples by adhering to the same rules and expectations of others within the organization, also utilize the Encourage the Heart practice recognize the contributions of individuals and celebrate the accomplishments of others. This paper, therefore addressed the following specific objectives: 1. Does leadership styles matter? 2. To explain the influence of demographic variables (gender, age, Tenure) on the leadership styles. History In order to begin understanding the concept of leadership, we must be aware of the theories of leadership as a whole. (Yukl 2002) classified practical research and leadership theories into five approaches: the trait approach, the behavioral approach, the power-influence approach, the situational approach, and the integrative approach. Studies that have been conducted within these approaches to leadership have made distinct contributions to our understanding of what leadership is, and each approach continues to influence our thinking about leadership as a process (Nahavandi). Approaches The Trait Approach: leadership mentioned specific attributes of leaders such as individuality, motives, values, and skills (Yukl 2002). The basic statement that guided the trait leadership studies was that leaders possessed certain traits that other people did not possess. In real meaning, the trait approach assumed that leaders were born, not made. The Behavioral Approach: After the studies conducted using the trait approach failed to produce certain result, many researchers began using a behavioral approach to study leadership. Researchers began looking into what leaders actually did on the job (Yukl 2002). According to Yukl, research conducted under the behavioral approach falls into one of two subcategories: how leaders benefit from their time and the typical pattern of actions, tasks, and functions of their jobs, and identifying effective leadership behavior. The Power-Influence Approach: According to (Yukl 2002), this type of approach to leadership involves the study of the influence that takes place between leaders and other people. Studies that have been conducted with this approach generally focused on leadership in terms of the amount of power possessed by a leader, the different types of power, and how power was exercised (Yukl 1989). The Situational Approach: The situational approach mentioned the importance of appropriate factors in the study of leadership. (Yukl 1989, 2002) identified the following contextual factors: the leaders authority and maturity, and the units who can perform leader tasks, the personality of the followers, the type of organization, and the nature of the exterior environment. The Integrative Approach: Researchers using the integrative approach to leadership consist of more than one type of leadership variable, such as trait, behavior, influence processes, and situational variables (Yukl 2002). (Bass 1990: 52-76) stressed the importance of including more than one type of leadership variable in research involving leaders and leadership when he stated, cognitive, behavioral, and interactional explanations are likely to be needed to account fully for leader-follower relations and outcomes from them. He further stated that leadership must be conceived in terms of the interaction of variables that are in constant flux. Leadership theories such as charismatic and transformational leadership are good examples of an integrative approach to leadership. These theories are broader in scope: they simultaneously involve leader traits, power, behavior, and situational variables (Yukl 1989: 270). Leadership Styles (Bass 1990) He talked about leadership as a procedure of interaction, between individuals and groups that includes a structured or restructured situation. Leadership can be explained as the ability of an individual to have power that focuses on how to establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al. 1996). From an organizational view, (Schermerhorn 1999) believed that most important is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to achieve and Support organizational goals, while (Hersey et al. 2001) believed that leadership effect individuals behavior based on individuals and organizational goals. (Robbins 2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to affect the behavior of a group to achieve organizational goals. It is possible to conclude from these discussions that leadership is a group of phenomena, where by leaders are distinctive from their followers, and can influence individuals activities to achieve set goals in their organizations. Leadership style is defined as the pattern of behaviors that leaders display during their work with and through others (Hersey and Blanchard 1993). (Miller et al. 2002) view leadership style as the way of interactions between leaders and followers. It includes controlling, directing, definitely all techniques and methods used by leaders to motivate followers to follow their directions. According to (Kavanaugh and Ninemeier 2001), there are three factors that determine the type of leadership style: leaders characteristics, subordinates characteristics and the organization environment. More specifically, the personal background of leaders such as personality, knowledge, values, and experiences shapes their feelings about appropriate leadership that determine their specific leadership style; employees also have different personalities, backgrounds, expectations and experiences, for example, employees who are more knowledgeable and experienced may work well under a democratic leadership style, while employees with different experiences and expectations require a autocratic leadership style. Some factors in the organization environment such as organizational climate, organization values, composition of work group and type of work can also influence leadership style. However, leaders can adapt their leadership style to the perceived preferences of their subordinates (Wood 1994). Leadership styles can be classified depend on leaders power and behavior as autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire, where styles are distinguished by the influence leaders have on subordinates (Mullins 1998) (Rollinson 2005). More specifically, power has been considered as: the potential of a process to influence people (Hersey et al. 2001); a part of the influence process at the middle of leadership (Northouse 2004); and the rights that allow individuals to take decisions about specific matters (Rollinson 2005). The influence of leadership will change depending on types of power used by a leader over their followers (Mullins 1998). Therefore, leaders will be more effective when they know and understand the appropriate usage of power (Hersey et al. 2001). According to (Kavanaugh and Ninemeier 2001) an autocratic style is embedded in leaders who have authority for decision making without sharing it with their subordinates, while a democratic style implies that leaders share their a uthority of decision making with employees, and finally a laissez-faire style exists where leaders give their employees least authority over decision making. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles (Burns 1978) talked about leadership styles as transactional and transformational leadership, these styles are at the opposite ends of the same scale. He mentioned that transactional leadership is a way on interactions between leaders and followers in which something of value was exchanged, such as rewards for performance, however, transformational leadership occurring when leaders and followers interacted in such a way to achieve a high level of motivation in both the leader and the follower are in the same road. (Bass 1985) mentioned that the leader should involve in both transactional and transformational leadership behaviors. Transformational leadership is not an alternative for transactional leadership, but rather tends to add to its effectiveness (Bass 1997). Bass mentioned that the transactional leader as individual who worked within the organizational culture of the group to know and explain the duties and tasks of followers to achieve the targeted objectives and outcomes. These outcomes were achieved when the leader negotiate with followers (Bass 1985). In other words, transactional leaders explain to followers what is required of them and then negotiate with them to see if they understood the requirements, either the promise of reward for good performance or the threat of punishment for bad performance (Bass 1990). (Bass 1985,1990) identified four characteristics of transactional leaders: contingent reward: This means when the followers stick to the order and achieved the requirements set by the leader, then the leader give the followers a bonus or reward for their performance. Active management by exception: In which the leaders monitor and control mistakes of followers and take actions to correct it. Passive management by exception: In which the leader only intervenes in a followers work if the requirements are not met. Finally, laissez-faire leadership in which the leader avoids responsibility and decision-making when performance and goals are not met. Laissez-faire leadership can actually be considered a non-leadership factor as it represents the absence of leadership (Northouse 2001). Bass characterized transformational leaders as persons who encourage followers to do more than they originally expected to maximize their original level of confidence towards accomplishing desired outcomes. Transformational leadership occurs when a leader: increase the level of understanding about the importance and value of desired outcomes, expands the wants and needs of followers, and gets followers to exceed their own self-interest for the sake of the group (Bass 1985). (Bass 1990) identified four characteristics of transformational leaders: charisma in which the leader is able to provide followers with a mental picture, send out a logic mission, gain respect and trust, and inspire belief in followers, inspiration in which the leader provides examples and patterns for the follower through symbols and images, emotional appeals, and communicating high expectations, intellectual stimulation in which the leader stimulates followers to think in new ways, increase intelligence and wisdom, and encourage problem solving. Individualized consideration in which the leader provides a helpful and coaching environment such that each follower is treated as a valued individual. Relationship between Leadership Style and Leadership / Management Theory Some studies have mentioned the differences between management and leadership to the difference between transactional and transformational leadership. (Bennis and Nanus 1997) noted that management normally consists of a set of exchanges whereas the end result of leadership is empowerment, this results of exchange leads to a clear success of any individuals. From this standpoint, management can be viewed from tow perspectives; one is performed by transactional leaders while the other can be seen as those activities performed by transformational leaders. Management and leadership are different in functions, however, we cant separate management from leadership because we have an amount of overlap exists between the two. Any organizations need both effective management and leadership to reach the desired outcomes. The role of management can be compared to transactional leadership in which followers must meet the expectations of their leaders based on contracts and performance requirements. Under most situations, this may be an effective way. Influence of Demographics on Leadership Styles Numerous studies have been conducted in the field of leadership that has addressed the influence of selected demographic characteristics of individuals on their leadership style. Some studies have focused on the influence of the characteristics on the self-perceived leadership style of the individual, others have focused on the perceptions of followers related to an individuals leadership style and the influence of these characteristics, and still others have involved the perceptions of both the leaders and their followers. (Krishnan and Park 1998) noted that demographic characteristics do exert considerable influence on the leadership styles of top managers. (Hambrick and Mason 1984) proposed that demographic traits such as age, tenure in an organization, functional area background, educational background, and degree of formal management training are all important aspects of leadership that influence organizational success. Gender: Differences in leadership styles between men and women are one of the most well researched aspects of leadership. There are two major schools of thinking on gender differences and leadership, one that says there are distinct differences and the other that says there are no differences in the preferred leadership styles of men and women, several studies have been conducted to determine if male or female leaders are more transformational. (Eagly and Johnson 1990) found that women tend to use a more participative and comprehensive style while men tend to use a more order and controlling style. This result indicates that women use more transformational styles while men use more transactional styles. This conclusion is supported by other studies that found women more likely to use transformational leadership than men and that men were more likely to use transactional leadership as their primary style (Druskat 1994) ( Rosener 1990). Age: Several studies examining the relationship between age and leadership style have been conducted organizations other than Extension. (Vroom and Pahl 1971) Talked about the older and younger managers, the older managers tend to be more commitment than the younger managers, more careful about things and decision, not been acceptable of risks and challenges, otherwise, younger managers had less commitment and prefers to take risks on their actions. Tenure: Studies have been conducted that evaluate the relationship between an individuals leadership style and their tenure within an organization as well as their tenure in leadership positions. (Bantel and Jackson 1989) found that the more tenure of the top management team within the independent financial institutions they studied had; the more likely they were to resist innovation and organizational change. In real meaning, if managers had more tenure with in any organization, he tried to resist all Improvements can affects the whole company. Lebanese case The Role of Islamic Banking: Islamic banking was created to concern and develop on the communities that it serves. Islamic banking requires promoting the ideal of successful society and secure economy, based on the Islamic ideas of social equality, ethics and empathy. Islamic banking challenges the concept of disparity in offering banking services to people of various social standings and endeavor for social tuning between different classes. Yet, Islamic banking is a commercially applicable way of banking, which shows an alternative financial architecture on economic base. Evolution of Islamic Banking: Recent Islamic banking practices can be tracked hundreds of years back to the days of Prophet Mohamad. At that time, the Prophet performed as a mudarib or agent for his wife Khadiga who contingent him with a certain capital or goods for trade. Afterwards, the Prophet (PBUH) reimbursed the capital and the profit was shared between the two parties. Throughout the years, Muslim bankers and religious scholars struggled to devise financial instruments that integrate Islamic values with banking activities. Though profit was important, nevertheless, said instruments were needed to promote ethical and transparent financing, equitable distribution of wealth, and equity participation in the economy. In the late 50s, the first efforts to create an Islamic financing environment emerged in Pakistan. Nevertheless, modern Islamic banking first appeared, on a small scale, in Egypt early in the 60s. Following the oil boom in the 70s, Islamic banking flourished in the Arab world, and then spread out into the Middle East, Iran, and Southeast Asia. In the mid 70s, the worlds first full-fledged Islamic bank was established in UAE. Because of its ethical and moral principles, Islamic banking has gradually succeeded in achieving universal acceptance and attracted funds from both Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Currently, more than 300 Islamic banks are present on the five continents of the world, operating in more than 60 different countries such as the UK, the US, France, Germany, Denmark, Luxembourg, Switzerland, the Bahamas, Cyprus, Pakistan, India, and of course the Arab world. With an annual growth rate of 15% to 20%, Islamic banks assets exceeded $ 500 billion by end of 2007. Islamic banking is maintaining its impressive growth worldwide, yet at a faster pace than conventional banking, to become an actual globalization phenomenon. Islamic banking was introduced to the Lebanese market in the early 90s under a commercial banking license. All transactions strived to offer conventional banking products and services in compliance with Sharia based on two regulations. Fiduciary contracts law. Investment banking general directives. DATA COLLECTION The targeted area contains all managers who worked at Islamic banking; This study used one mechanism to collect data from one matched sampling frames in Islamic banking. Using leadership styles mechanism for managers. The leadership styles questionnaire was adapted from the leadership styles survey originally consisting of 18 statements This questionnaire is designed to measure three common styles of leadership: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire, A five points scale was used in the instruments, where (1) equals strongly disagree, and (5) equals strongly agree. The questionnaires were handed over to the HR departments who in turn distributed 160 leadership styles questionnaires to the managers. From the respondents returned 110 out of 160, usable survey in this study was 110 questionnaires for data analysis. Also examine the Demographic characteristics of the participants on leader ship styles: One hundred and ten managers participated in this study. One hundred were males and the others were females. Most participants (n=78) were aged between 26- 35 years. The majority of participants (n=96) were degree holders. The highest number of participants (n=40) had 2-4 years of service. The majority of participants (62) were middle managers Analysis discussion Internal consistency tests were conducted on instrument. The results indicated an overall percentage of leadership styles. The details of these results are shown in Table: Internal consistency of the instrument % Autocratic style 36 Democratic style 63 Laissez -faire style 11 According to (White and Lippitt), democratic leader possesses low goals and means control, and utilizes high motivation of group procedures. Leadership style refers to a way of behavior used by managers and leaders across a wide range of managerial situations. These styles that are largely responsible for creating the organizational environment in which team members are expected to perform. Islamic Banking shows that the most effective leaders use a wide range of styles, adapting readily to the needs of particular situations and accurately choosing the right styles for the moment. I did find that a democratic leadership style was the most popular and successful of the three types. However, there was little suggestion with democratic leaders achieved that increases productivity or superior behavior among their members. I do caution with laissez-faire leaders to remain aware of the risk that require of structure can actually be troublemaking. In this study, managers showed different leadership styles preferences based on their demographic profiles (age, gender, and education), tenure and organizational position. This study showed that males, older managers, degree holders, experienced managers, and middle managers had a higher preference toward democratic leadership styles than other styles based on leadership styles questioner above. These findings are consistent with some previous findings such as those by Yousef (1998) who found that managers age, education, and experience had a relationship with their leadership style. Oshagbemi and Gill (2004) indicated differences among leadership styles based on hierarchal level. On the other hand, this study also disagrees with previous work such as Yousef (1998) who showed that managers gender and tenure did not have a relationship with their leadership style. Rad and Yarmohammadin (2006) found no link with demographic profiles other than experience. The current study, therefore, concludes that all leadership styles exist in Islamic banking, but that the democratic style was the prevalent leadership styles. Recommendations Conclusion As with any academic study, there are limitations that limit the generalizability of this study. The first limitation that must be considered is related to the nature of the Bank being studied. Because this study will be conducted within the Islamic Bank State Research, Education, which is a unique Bank in terms of its structure and function, the findings, will not be generalizable to other organizations. The study will even so contribute useful information and recommendations for researchers. Based upon the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations were made: Understanding leadership style helps to classify strengths and weaknesses. You can be positive and more successful as a leader by strategically using strengths and focusing on weaker points. Leadership style defines standards and perspective, and being aware of it will support your communication with other followers. As the saying goes, knowledge is a strong weapon and power tool. You can give power to yourself and move forward in job or importance by increase this knowledge. In this study, gender had no effect on overall leadership styles, perceived proficiency in the leadership styles areas. Based on this finding, gender should not be a basis of discrimination when hiring Islamic bank leaders. The study found that there were also significant differences in leadership style due to managers demographic characteristics, and that the democratic leadership style was preferred among managers, I suggest that most successful leaders are able to adjust their behavior as circumstances dictate to effect positive outcomes. Finally, I recommend that Islamic bank leaders remain focused on addressing concerns within their control, such as implementing best practices, promoting , organized and unified team, determining specific roles and responsibilities for members, adhering to the agreed upon decision-making process, and regularly assessing fees.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Green Grass, Powerful Women White culture misinterpreted, ridiculed and even outlawed native beliefs. Natives, in turn were forced to live according to the absurdities of the white man. In Green Grass Running Water, King portrays these absurdities through four old Indians and a coyote that are trying to fix the world. This task becomes very difficult for them, when the Christian God appears and messed everything up. Now they are confused and the world is in chaos. King shows how illogical and foreign the natives found the Christian religion; especially in itÃ¢â¬â¢s views on WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s inequality. It all started Ã¢â¬Å"in the beginning.Ã¢â¬ Everything was fine with this [Indian] beginning until that crazy Christian God (or dog) got a hold of the world and mixed everything up. So, there was a Sky World and in that sky world was a woman. Big woman. Strong woman. First Woman. First woman falls from the sky world into the water world and decides she better make some land. G O D thinks this is ok, but a garden would be better. First woman makes a garden and lives there with Ahdamn. Nobody knows were Ahdamn came from, but things like that happen, you know. (King, 40) At first this novice Christian G O D does not realize that there is anything wrong with First Woman being called Strong Woman. Naturally, no (Christian) G O D in their right mind would let a woman have a name with that much power. This new G O D also does not realize the insignificant role that Adam plays or the humiliation that he brings with a name like Ã¢â¬Å"AhdamnÃ¢â¬ . Aside from his name, Ahdamn is a foolish man. While First Woman is busy finding them something to eat, Ahdamn is naming the animals. You are a microwave oven, Ahdamn tells the Bear. We got to get you some glasses, says the Bear. You are a telephone book, Ahdamn tells the Cedar Tree. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re getting closer, says the Cedar Tree. You are a cheeseburger, Ahdamn tells Old Coyote. Everything is fine and G O D does not think anything is wrong until First Woman comes across that forbidden tree. It has all sorts of goodies such as apples, melons, bananas, hotdogs, fry break, corn, potatoes, pizza, and extra-crispy friend chicken. But G O D does not want anybody eating his food and so his Christian rules are made and women are suppressed. In this next story G O D has more control over the situation and is... .... She has to grab his face to keep his attention; and second, AlbertaÃ¢â¬â¢s control over him. She holds all the cards, he is just a player in her game, and heÃ¢â¬â¢s about get loose. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really need him, in fact, if she can find a way to do without him, itÃ¢â¬â¢s done. She would rather have a one-night stand or be artificially inseminated than to have a man tag along. It is clear that the role of a man is very diminished, not needed to make the baby and not wanted to raise the baby. This is outside of the social Christian norms, but Luckily Alberta is a Strong Woman, an Indian woman and has the economic means to support a child on her own, which is more than she can say for Lionel. Poor Lionel is left in the dark with no role to play but that of a child whose fate is controlled by the women around him. The four old IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s must have done something right, despite the Christian G O D getting in the way of their culture and messing up their story. Even outside of this novel, we live in a chaotic world of mixed up stories and combined religions. We are a Christian nation (thanks to the Christian G O D) but we also hold true to our Native origins of female superiority.
The Controversy Over Harry Potter The Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling has created quite a stir among public schools and churches. Some parents and ministers are afraid these books are teaching wizardry, witchcraft, and evil to their children, while others think they are books of harmless fantasy. There are two sides to this controversy, but I believe that these are just a way for kids to make-believe and imagine. The Harry Potter books are about a boy who learns he has special powers and attends a school called Hogwarts School for Witchcraft and Wizardry. Here we find trials against good and evil, where good triumphs. There have been some parents who have protested these books and have been trying to get them banned from schools. In Clarence, New York, at Ledgeview Elementary School, Eric Poliner isnÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to listen when his teacher, Mrs. Cusack, reads Harry Potter and the SorcererÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone aloud to her fifth grade students. His mom has him sit in the library and study while the other students listen to the story. Eric says, Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot about witchcraft and...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Reincarnation Synopsis Reincarnation is the embodiment in flesh or human form of the soul of a person now dead. Reincarnation is the belief that the soul survives after death and is reborn in the body of another person of some other living thing. This concept is called Transmigration of the Soul. Different religions from different countries have different beliefs of reincarnation. According to the Law of Karma, after death the soul is capable of passing to another body. The new body in which the soul is said to be reincarnated may be human, animal, plant or inanimate. According to the HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s a good man may be reborn into a higher caste or perhaps even a god, were a lesser man becomes an insect or a worm. Cases One of the best documented cases is that of a young Indian girl named Shanti Devi living in Delhi (born 1926) who at the age of three began to recall details of a former life in the town of Mutta eighty miles away. She said she had married a cloth merchant, given birth to a son and died ten years later. Her claims continued and when she was nine years old her family wrote to her claimed husband who visited her home unannounced and was immediately recognized by Shanti Devi. A committee was set up to witness her visit to Mutta and testified the fact that she did recognize other relatives, knew the way to her former house, which she recognized and in fact revealed that money had been hidden in the house. The hiding place was found and her former husband admitted he had removed the money. The Pollock family is another well recognized case is that of the two little girls of the Pollock family who were killed by a run- away car in the town of Hexham in Northumberland. Twin girls born two years later to the same parents claimed dolls of the former children as their own. One said Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s my Mary.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ The other girl said, Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s my dolly that we had a long time agoÃ¢â¬ ! Investigations Dr Ian Stevenson of the University of Virginia has spent thirty years investigation of reincarnation. His strongest cases are based on children with pre-natural memories that can be verified often in considerable detail and in circumstances that made it highly unlikely that the children would have searched the information. Other evidence that match marks on previous suspected incarnations particularly where they might relate to the death of the former individual, for example where the reincarnation of a gunshot victim has birthmarks which match the entry holes of the bullets in the victim.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
As weÃ¢â¬â¢ve already learned, Ã¢â¬Å"motivationÃ¢â¬ entails trying to find out why people act the way they do (Brophy, 1998). Recalling on it, Ã¢â¬Å"motivesÃ¢â¬ are specific forces that strengthen and direct behavior toward solving a problem or realization of a goal (Brophy, 1998). Ã¢â¬Å"MotivesÃ¢â¬ differ from each other according to kind, for instance, hunger, thirst, etc; according to intensity, for instance, more hungry than thirsty; according to origin, for instance, biologically-based as against experience-based (Brophy, 1998). It may also be different in terms of being internal or external and the degree to which a person is aware of them (Brophy, 1998). For instance, employees who go on strike may do so because they adhere to some moral principles or Ã¢â¬Å"instrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ ; or because they would like to ask for a salary increase or Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ (Brophy, 1998). Ã¢â¬Å"Intrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ is concerned with motives based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own internal needs and desires while Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ involves positive or negative external rewards that affect behavior (Brophy, 1998). Another aspect that may differ the Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"intrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ is the fact that in Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"it focuses people on the reward instead of the actionÃ¢â¬ while this is not the case in Ã¢â¬Å"intrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ (Morris et.al. , 2005). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why if the rewards are stopped, the action/behavior also will (Morris et. al. , 2005). To compare or contrast Ã¢â¬Å"intrinsic and extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ further, letÃ¢â¬â¢s a look at some more examples: When an individual knows that a reward will be given as a consequence of what he or she is about to do, which actually fits the technical definition of Ã¢â¬Å"extrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ then he or she is most likely to carry it out (Morris et. al. , 2005). Another example is when an individual does things not because he or she has or needs to but because he or she wants to (Morris et. al. , 2005). The fact that the individual does it and that it is rewarding in itself for the individual then what he or she is doing is the exact definition of the technical term Ã¢â¬Å"intrinsic motivationÃ¢â¬ (Morris et. al. , 2005). References Brophy, J. (1998). Motivation. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill. Morris, C. G. & Maisto, A. A. (2005). Psychology: An Introduction, 12th Ed. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Monday, September 16, 2019
India as a nation is faced with massive problem of unemployment. Unemployment can be defined as a state of worklessness for a man fit and willing to work. It is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness. Some features of unemployment have been identified as follows: 1.The incidence of unemployment is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas. 2.Unemployment rates for women are higher than those for men. 3.The incidence of unemployment among the educated is much higher than the overall unemployment. 4.There is greater unemployment in agricultural sector than in industrial and other major sectors. Economists and social thinkers have classified unemployment into various types. Generally unemployment can be classified in two types: (1) Voluntary unemployment In this type of unemployment a person is out of job of his own desire doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work on the prevalent or prescribed wages. Either he wants higher wages or doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to work at all. It is in fact social problem leading to social disorganization. Social problems and forces such as a revolution, a social upheaval, a class struggle, a financial or economic crisis a war between nations, mental illness, political corruption mounting unemployment and crime etc. threaten the smooth working of society. Social values are often regarded as the sustaining forces of society. They contribute to the strength and stability of social order. But due to rapid social change new values come up and some of the old values decline. At the same time, people are not is a position to reject the old completely and accept the new altogether. Here, conflict between the old and the new is the inevitable result which leads to the social disorganization in imposed situation. In economic terminology th is situation is voluntary unemployment. (2) In voluntary unemployment In this type of situation the person who is unemployed has no say in the matter. It means that a person is separated from remunerative work and devoid of wages although he is capable of earning his wages and is also anxious to earn them. Forms and types of unemployment according to Hock are. a.Cyclical unemployment Ã¢â¬â This is the result of the trade cycle which is a part of the capitalist system. In such a system, there is greater unemployment and when there is depression a large number of people are rendered unemployed. Since such an economic crisis is the result of trade cycle, the unemployment is a part of it. b.Sudden unemployment Ã¢â¬â When at the place where workers have been employed there is some change, a large number of persons are unemployed. It all happens in the industries, trades and business where people are employed for a job and suddenly when the job has ended they are asked to go. c.Unemployment caused by failure of Industries Ã¢â¬â In many cases, a business a factory or an industry has to close down. There may be various factors responsible for it there may be dispute amongst the partners, the business may give huge loss or the business may not turn out to be useful and so on. d.Unemployment caused by deterioration in Industry and business Ã¢â¬â In various industries, trades or business, sometimes, there is deterioration. This deterioration may be due to various factors. In efficiency of the employers, keen competitions less profit etc. are some of the factors responsible for deterioration in the industry and the business. e.Seasonal unemployment Ã¢â¬â Certain industries and traders engage workers for a particular season. When the season has ended the workers are rendered unemployed. Sugar industry is an example of this type of seasonal unemployment. The problem of unemployment has becoming a colossal. Various problems have caused this problem. There are individual factors like age, vocational unfitness and physical disabilities which restrict the people. External factors include technological and economic factors. There is enormous increase in the population. Every year India adds to her population afresh. More than this every year about 5 million people become eligible for securing jobs. Business field is subject to ups and downs of trade cycle and globalization. Economic depression or sick industries are often close down compelling their employees to become unemployed. Technological advancement contributes to economic development .But unplanned and uncontrolled growth of technology is causing havoc on job opportunities. The computerization and automation has led to technological unemployment. Strikes and lockouts have become inseparable aspect of the industrial world today. Due to these industries often face economic loses and production comes down. Since workers do not get any salary or wages during the strike period they suffer from economic hardships. They become permanently or temporarily unemployed. Today young people are not ready to take jobs which are considered to be socially degrading or lowly. Our educational system has its own irreparable defects and its contribution to the unemployment is an open truth.Our education does not prepare the minds of young generation to become self-employed on the contrary it makes them dependent on government vacancies which are hard to come. Our State right from the beginning of Five year plans has introduced several employment generating schemes and programmes over the years but in the absence of proper implementation and monitoring have failed to achieve the required targets. Recently UPA Government has come up with Rural Employment Guarantee program which aims to provide minimum days of employment to people living in the villages. This is a laudable programme if implemented sincerely because it will provide employment to people during natural calamities like drought, floods etc. The remedial measures for reducing unemployment may lay greater emphasis on creation of opportunities for self -employment, augmentation of productivity and income levels of the working poor, shift in emphasis from creation of relief type of employment to the building up of durable productive assets in the rural areas and instead of attempting to revert somewhat to protectionist policies the pace of privatization may be accelerated.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Guided Questions for Directed Journaling Level 3 (November 2012 Session) 1. To prepare graduates that conduct themselves in a professional manner by acting ethically, selfassessing, following codes of conduct and standards of practice with integrity. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Review the responsibilities of the dental hygienist for reporting abuse under the Regulated Health Professions Act, as outlined in the CDHO RegistrantÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook and Professional Issues II (DH 202). Read the articles Ã¢â¬Å"Oral health professional alert: Elder abuse concern in the United States and CanadaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Initiating discourse on recognizing and reporting child abuseÃ¢â¬ .Based on these articles, reflect on the following: Ã¢â¬â Describe your responsibility and obligation when you suspect abuse in Ontario. Ã¢â¬â Outline the consequences you could face if you neglected your duty. Ã¢â¬â Reflect your personal opinion about this responsibility and possible consequence. Ã¢â¬â Describe how you woul d handle a situation in the CADH clinic should you suspect abuse. Furnari, W. (2011). Oral health professional alert: Elder abuse concern in the United States and Canada. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (2): 98-102. DeMattei, R. R. , Sherry, J. S. 2011). Initiating discourse on recognizing and reporting child abuse. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (4): 253-258. 2. To prepare graduates that effectively communicate and collaborate with clients, substitute decision makers, communities and other professionals. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Read the article Ã¢â¬Å"An Overview of health behavioural change theories and models: Interventions for the dental hygienist to improve client motivation and complianceÃ¢â¬ . Reflect on your communication with clients and discuss client belief/value modification using approaches identified in the article.Further, explain how you can overcome the challenge. Collins,S. M. An Overview of health behavioural change theories and models: Interventions for the dental hygienist to improve client mot ivation and compliance. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (2): 109-115. 3. To prepare graduates who demonstrate critical thinking by determining credible information and integrating knowledge using an evidence-based approach to deliver the dental hygiene process of care. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Read one of the articles listed below. Select one of these articles that pertain to a client you are currently treating.Based on the information in the article: Ã¢â¬â Highlight the significant findings within this article Ã¢â¬â Demonstrate how you have utilized the significant findings found in the chosen article within the dental hygiene process of care for your client DeAssis-Soares, M. R. F. (2011). Halitosis from tonsilloliths: Literature review for oral healthcare providers. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (4): 223-228. An, S. L. , Ranson, C. (2011). Obstructive sleep apnea for the dental hygienist: Overview and parameters for interprofessional practice.Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (4): 238-252. 4. To prepare graduates that a dvocate for themselves, individuals, the community and the profession. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Review Ã¢â¬Å"A Guide toÃ¢â¬ ¦Choosing and Adapting Culturally and Linguistically Competent Health Promotion MaterialsÃ¢â¬ at the following link http://www11. georgetown. edu/research/gucchd/nccc/documents/Materials_Guide. pdf Ã¢â¬â How can you use this information to provide efforts of advocacy for the client to be able to meet the needs of clients of diverse cultures? Ã¢â¬â What type of advocacy can you engage in to assist the client? . To prepare graduates who are competent coordinators who model the mission, vision and priorities of the organization in the practice content by applying quality assurance standards and protocol to ensure a safe, productive and effective working environment and maintaining documentation and records consistent with professional practice standards. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assume that you have been given the responsibility of reviewing and updating the policies and protocols relat ed to safety in the CADH clinic.Review the articles outlined and answer the following: Ã¢â¬â Reflect on what this information means to the safety of clients, practitioners, and the public. Ã¢â¬â Identify where CADHÃ¢â¬â¢s policy are in compliance with the literature and where improvements are required. Leivers, M. , Kanji, N. N. , Hirji, S. K. , Hernandez, G. , Kaminska, B. D. , and do, H. L. T. (2012). Uniform contamination in the dental environment. Can J Dent Hygiene 46 (1): 50-56. 6. To prepare graduates who are competent clinical therapists who apply professional judgment consistent with standards of practice when safely delivering client specific dental hygiene process of are to individuals as independent practitioners or in partnership with other health care providers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Read one of the articles listed below. Select one of these articles that pertain to a client you are currently treating. Based on the information in the article: Ã¢â¬â Highlight the significa nt findings within this article Ã¢â¬â Demonstrate how you have utilized the significant findings found in the chosen article within the dental hygiene process of care for your client Pence, S. D. , Chambers, D. A. , van Tets, I.G. , Wolf, r. C. , and Pfeiffer, D. C. (2011). Repetitive coronal polishing yields minimal enamel loss. J of Dent Hygiene 85 (4): 348-357. Imai, P. H. , Hatzimanolakis, P. C. (2011). Interdental brush in type I embrasures: Examiner blinded randomized clinical trial of bleeding and plaque efficacy. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (1): 25-32. 7. To prepare graduates as an oral health educator who uses theoretical frameworks and educational principles to assess, plan, deliver, evaluate and modify oral health behaviours. Read one of the articles listed below. Using the information from the article, reflect on how the information outlined in the article can impact your clinical practice as an oral health educator. Dempster, L. J. , Locker, D. , Winson, R. P. (2011). The dental fear and avoidance scale (DFAS): Validation and application. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (3): 158-164. Waldron, S. K. (2011). Auditory sensory impairments and the impact on oral healthcare: A review of the literature. Can J Dent Hygiene 45 (3): 180-184.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
1. INTRODUCTION From this reflection, I am glad that I came to this talk because this kind of discussion taught me a lot on how to be a good and excellent entrepreneur. Maybe before I came, the first think we will think after being an entrepreneur is of course the profit that we gained. We never think about the responsibilities as a Muslim to do the job properly and wisely. Sometimes the entrepreneur itself forget to donate the money, to give zakat and others. We only think that the profit that the business can give us. But we forget that everything come from Allah and everything is hisÃ¢â¬â¢. We do not absolutely own every single money that we earn. But of course if we earn it by ourselves the money is ours, but if we do not give zakat, the money is nothing to us as a Muslim. 2. REFLECTIONS ON KEY LEARNING POINT 2.1 Islamic entrepreneurship There are secrets to be a successful businessman which is following the way from the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).There are 10 qualities of Prophet Muhammad in being a successful person in business. First is honesty. Undoubtedly, no one can be more truthful and honest than the Messengers of God. Of course we must be honest on doing works to get barakah from Allah on what are we doing.. Second is trustworthy. Trustworthiness further enhances the integrity and sound moral conduct that is inherent in the notion of honesty. Being trustworthy implies being honest, fair in dealings and punctual as well as honoring trusts and keeping promises and commitments. The third one is flexibility. He always observed justice and equity while he was tradingÃ and avoided telling lies and fraud, which was the practiced by many tradesmen. Prophet Muhammad was never strict in his business dealings with others. SaÃ¢â¬â¢ib ibn al-SaÃ¢â¬â¢ib relates: During the age of ignorance, I was his [the ProphetÃ¢â¬â ¢s] trade partner, and I found him the best of the partners in every respect. He neither argued with anyone nor was he obstinate and nor did he blame anything on his partner. Fourth is his consciousness of responsibility. In a hadith reported by Abdullah b. Omar Prophet Muhammad said: Ã¢â¬Å"We are all shepherds and we are all responsible for those who are under our hands (i.e. in our flocks). Fifth is good manner with his companions. The prophet was very close to his companions, and this is well known when one reads the detailed reports about the prophetÃ¢â¬â¢s biography. The sixth one is prophet Muhammad always seek his companions to consult with them. The Prophet (pbuh) would consult his companions, and take their opinions and points of view into consideration in issues and matters for which no textual proofs were revealed. The prophet (SAW) was concerned about his companions and would make sure that they were well. If he was told about a companion who was sick, he would rush to visit him with the companions that were present with him. Seventh is Prophet Muhammad would serve himself such as washed his own clothes and milked his sheep. The ProphetÃ¢â¬â¢s excellent manners, not only made him serve himself; rather, he would serve others as well. Next is he recognizes his companionsÃ¢â¬â¢ skills. A good leader is one who sees the positive traits of his team members and invests in them. This is exactly what the Prophet (pbuh) did with his companions. There are many examples that show how the Prophet (pbuh) discovered where his companions excelled and how he utilized their potentials and wisely invested in them. The second last is correcting his companionsÃ¢â¬â¢ mistakes. Correcting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mistakes is a Quranic guidance. The Quran has many references to situations in which a certain conduct is blamed and corrected. These situations apply to Muslims in general and to the Prophet (pbuh) himself. Last but not least is the gentleness of Prophet Muhammad. Gentleness is a key quality of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). When he wanted to teach his companions, he used a very wise method which involved both respect for the recipient of such knowledge without embarrassing him. 2.2 Personality Type That Suit to Your New Venture There are 4 types of person after lots of researches has been done. First is sanguine. Sanguine is a sociable person. They laugh for the hard days, wise words when squeezed by the burden, creative, enthusiasm, and always have the energy to start. Sanguine love to be popular. They have a lot of friends. They love to talk, to perform, and help each other and they always curious. Sanguine love to be children forever. Second is choleric. Choleric is a strong person. They have a strong leadership. They are faithful, brave, and have the freedom to be on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. They all forced and always want to make a change. Strong-willed and assertive, goal oriented, well organized, and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t really need friends. They always be the superior one in the emergency time. Next is melancholic. Melancholies is a sensitive person. Depth to see the heart and soul of life. Artistic to appreciate the art. They are thoughtfully, analytical, serious, and have a talent. They are perfectionist, so they love details. Last but not least is phlegmatic. Phlegmatic is a peaceful person. They always stable, patient, and have a compassion for the other. They always keep calm, when the other was in confusion. They are humble, silent, controlled, good listener, and always happy with their life. They always be the mediator, and easy to get along with. 2.3 SALES AND MARKETING For sales and marketing, there are 4 marketing techniques that can boost up our business. First is product. In the case of services, the Ã¢â¬Å"productÃ¢â¬ is intangible, heterogeneous and perishable. Moreover, its production and consumption are inseparable. Hence, there is scope for customizing the offering as per customer requirements, and the actual customer encounter therefore assumes particular significance. Second is price. Of all the aspects of the marketing mix, price is the one, which creates sales revenue Ã¢â¬â all the others are costs. The price of an item is clearly an important determinant of the value of sales made. In theory, price is really determined by the discovery of what customers perceive is the value of the item on sale. Next is place. Place is concerned with various methods of transporting and storing goods, and then making them available for theÃ customer. Getting the right product to the right place at the right time involves the distribution system. The choice of distribution method will depend on a variety of circumstances. The last one is promotion. Promotion is the business of communicating with customers. It will provide information that will assist them in making a decision to purchase a product or service. The successful promotion increases sales so that advertising and other costs are spread over a larger output. Though increased promotional activity is often a sign of a response to a problem such as competitive activity, it enables an organization to develop and build up a succession of messages and can be extremely cost-effective. CRITICAL FINDINGS 3.1 Islamic Entrepreneurship Islam is a complete way of life. There is no separation between business and religion. Islam has its own entrepreneurship culture and guiding principles based on the Al-Quran and Al-Hadith to guide business operation. The aim of the group is to highlight the guiding principles of entrepreneurship in Islam, especially in the Arab heritage, by Al-Quran, Al-Hadith and the entrepreneurial ethics based on example of conducts from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). In business, entrepreneurs has to have objectives and targets but these are subservient to the ultimate objective of acquiring the blessing of Allah s.w.t. In Islam, to indulge in business is to perform an obligatory duty (fardhu kifayah). Profits gained from the business by entrepreneurs are merely incidental in the fulfillment of the fardhu kifayah. In business we must have a role model so that their actions can guide us in our development stages of life and more so, they help us make meaningful decisions. Many children grow up imitating their role modelÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, for example, if they see their role model smoking, then they are likely to smoke. We as Muslims have our own role model that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be changed even in another life none other than Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). There is no community has been without its righteous guides and teachers to help its people towards the truth and to lead them from the depths of darkness to the light of Islam. Aristotle believes that we learn to be moral (virtuous) by modeling the behavior of moral people. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has maintained the best characteristics in his roles as father, husband, friend, ruler, governor,Ã teacher, statesman, protector of the weak, widows, and poor, a guide to the rich, a guardian of the orphans, and a servant of Allah. No one could ever equal the Prophet (pbuh) in the whole history of mankind and no one ever will, insha Allah. 3.2 Personality Type That Suit to Your New Venture As for me, I would like meet new people, having works with bunch of friends so that we would not feel the works is burdensome for us and we also find that doing work in group is fun. As we know the more the merrier. Meeting new people will teach me to handle every kind or every type of people. I think the type of personality suits me best is sanguine. This is because I am a person who is very talkative an also extrovert. I am not good for keeping things inside. In the future I have planned to work not only in the office but have opportunities to meet new people so that I can increase the number of friends. I also like to socialize instead of having works in front of the computer for the whole day. I also tend to enjoy social gatherings. From the research, they state that sanguine personality is affected by chemical called dopamine, which makes these people intensely curious and creative. Their curiosity can be expressed in their love for reading and different kinds of knowledge and t hey usually possess high amounts of energy, so they may seem restless and spontaneous. Some findings also stated that if you have a sanguine business personality, your strengths lie in your interpersonal relationships. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got people skills that are out of this world. People warm to you quickly and you understand how to make a good first impression. Your business relationships are solid and effective; social media and networking come easily to you. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re probably very popular in your workplace amongst your co-workers as well as your clients. Even though like that, everyone must have their own negative sides in their own way. For sanguine we need a little help in the non-social aspects of owning a business. Ã¢â¬ËOn Your OwnÃ¢â¬â¢ we may have trouble focusing when youÃ¢â¬â¢re working alone or you may find solo work boring and tedious. Timeliness Sanguine tend to be chronically late. You may have trouble getting in on time or keeping up with your appointments. Like any other bad habits, the first step is admitting that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a problem t ime management. Sanguine also oftenÃ struggle with leadership positions if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re too concerned with how their employees see them. Of course it would be some good sides of a person and some bad sides. But, with such an extroverted business personality, we should not be afraid to focus on networking and building strong customer relationships. Just make sure that weÃ¢â¬â¢re not losing sight on the other aspects of your business; though your social interactions may have built your business, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the legwork that keeps it running. Your personality type might affects everything in your life. It is how we interact with others, how we spend our free time, how we build relationships. It even affects how we do business. This is why we need Islam in our life so that we do not go astray from what we should do. And this is one of the reason why we must have to make Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as a role model so that we know why we do all of this on this earth. 3.3 SALES AND MARKETING For IIC marketing and sales, they also follow the rules of marketing which are 4Ps. 1. Product This year (2013)2 certificates, 10 diploma programs and 2 degree programs are offered. For December 2013, online executive diploma program will be opened. Next year additional 2 certificate, 1 foundation, 7 diploma programs and 3 degree programs are offered for registered students. IIC also is IIUM branding which is apply Islamic values and also Intensive English classes. 2. Place IIC is placed at Taman Batu Muda, Batu Caves, Kuala Lumpur. Batu Caves is a center of Malaysia. This is because Batu caves is one of the most popular temple in the world. So people might be easy to know the place of IIC by searching it in the internet. This place also easy access by public transportation. 3. Promotion There are some promotions has been held by IIC which are advertisements in newspapers and radio stations, participating in educational exhibitions locally and internationally and road Tour while conduct briefing and interview session nationwide. IIC also promotes using telemarketing and Facebook. They also held some programs with school counselors to persuadeÃ the students to join IIC. Registered agents also has been practiced in IIC promoting actions. 4. Price Certificate Ã¢â¬â RM5,580 Diploma Ã¢â¬â RM14,260-RM18,400 Degree Ã¢â¬â RM42,000 (3 years), RM28,000 (2 Years) Registration fee of RM440/RM975- Cert/Diploma Registration fee of RM1,000/RM1,500- Degree Hostel Fee of RM250 per month From the talk we can see that the sales and marketing part for IIC has been given as listed above. It follows everything from the 4Ps. 4. ACTION PLAN After the speech given by the speakers, we can tell that IIC is a good high education institute because it is near to residential area and lots of facilities around the campus. This will ease the student of the institute to get the essential needs. As for me I will promote the institute to others as it offers the course that widely needed in this global industries. This campus also offers a very conducive environment of studies to help the students to develop their critical and logical thinking as well as develop their creativity and good personal traits. I also thinking about joining the road tour with IIC so that I can get some experience about marketing and promoting. From the road tour, IIC will distribute goody bags to provide all the information needed for the customers. I also will help to promote IIC using social network as we can see internet is the fastest to spread the information all over the cyber community. 5. CONCLUSION From the talk we can see that everything that has been discussed is important. First is they let us know that the qualities to be the best business man is we must have our role model which is Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) so that we will not go astray from what we should do and from we should be. They also taught us about the personality types exist so that we well prepared for anything happen in the future on how to overcome our emotion and our greediness and so on. Next is the 4Ps which are the most importantÃ things in marketing and entrepreneurship. 4Ps stands for product, price, promotion and place. Every aspect must be clear before we run any business so that we know what exactly going on to our business.