Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Civil Rights Campaign During the Years 1945-57 Essay There were many factors which contributed to the eventual success of the Civil Rights Movement during the years 1945- 57, a key example being the campaigns and peaceful protests of the NAACP which worked through the Supreme Court in the U. S. to tackle Ã¢â¬Å"de jureÃ¢â¬ discrimination. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s membership grew from 50,000 to 450,000 by 1945 and was the largest civil rights organisation at the time. Overall, the group had significant success in the years 1945- 57. However, the work of the NAACP alone was not solely responsible for the success of the Civil Rights campaign and other factors which contributed to this include, the influence of key figures such as Martin Luther King and the actions of the Federal Government, including both Congress, the Supreme Court and Presidents, the work of other known civil rights groups and the second World War, which alongside the NAACP, influenced black Americans awareness. It cannot be denied that the actions of the Civil Rights campaigning group, the NAACP, played a significant role in addressing Ã¢â¬Å"de jureÃ¢â¬ discrimination in particular before Martin Luther King was on the scene. The group supported Black Americans through the Supreme Court rulings in attempts to put an end to Ã¢â¬Å"de jureÃ¢â¬ discrimination. A significant example of how the NAACP was successful is the case of Brown V. Board of Education 2 in 1955; although successful during the first Brown case in 1954, the judgement of desegregating public schools was not enforced leading to the Brown case 2 which did successfully enforce the ruling. The judgement overruled the Plessy V Ferguson case of 1896 which allowed Jim Crow Laws. Plessy V. Ferguson was essentially the beginning of the Ã¢â¬Ëseparate but equalÃ¢â¬â¢ ideology. Although a success in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"de jureÃ¢â¬ discrimination, it is important to remember that the NAACP did not deal with Ã¢â¬Å"de factoÃ¢â¬ discrimination, something which did hold the desegregation of public schools back in the first Brown case. Another key example of how the NAACP was successful is the case of Morgan V. Virginia in 1946 in which the group tried to put an end to segregation on public transport. As a whole, the NAACP did play a significant role in the progress towards improving the status of black Americans as it not only presented black Americans as united but also built up a positive representation of the minorities through their peaceful protests and campaigns. However, if there was to be any criticism of the NAACP, it would be their neglect of addressing Ã¢â¬Å"de factoÃ¢â¬ discrimination. Although the de jure victories were a success, they could not fully be successful as on some occasions, they could not be fully enforced due to the hostility of Southern White Americans in particular. A key example of this is the radical group the Ku Klux Klan who opposed African Americans violently and attempted to prevent Black Americans from making de fact and de jure change by intimidating them and subjecting them to extreme racial discrimination. It is also important to remember that although the NAACP was successful with the majority of their campaigns, it was ultimately down to the rulings of the Supreme Court to ensure that the judgements were passed. In terms of the Federal government, the extent of their influence during the years 1945- 55 is questionable as Congress in particular opposed most essentially positive developments put forward. For example, when Truman put forward his document, Ã¢â¬ËTo Secure These RightsÃ¢â¬â¢ which included an anti- lynching policy and voting rights for black Americans, congress denounced the document. However, Truman did have some positive contributions towards the Civil Rights Movement, for example, he did desegregate the armed forces something which Congress had no influence over. Although a positive development, it can be argued that Truman was not persistent enough to pursue trying to bring about racial equality. Unlike Truman, who appeared to favour the Civil Rights campaign, Eisenhower seemed less supportive of the movement. Nonetheless, he did enforce integration of a public school in1957 during the Little Rock campaign and towards the end of his Presidency he did enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1957 which focused on the voting rights of African Americans. Looking at the influence the Second World War had on black Americans, it cannot be denied that it did affect the Civil Rights campaign significantly. During the war, the U. S. needed the support the black community. As a result, the Fair Employment Practices Commission was set up to ensure that black Americans received fair treatment in government hiring. However, although on the service this seems like a success for the progress of the Civil Rights campaign, its success was limited as only a small number of black Americans were actually employed in the government. However, the war did increase prosperity amongst the Black community as many did have some form of employment. The involvement of black Americans fighting in the war also meant that many travelled abroad and became increasingly aware of the discrimination they were exposed to back in the U. S. The fact that the Second World War was about freedom and the U. S. were fighting to stop the persecution of minorities, in particular Jews, almost made the U. S. look like hypocrites as they themselves were actively discriminating against ethnic minorities. Overall, the impact of the Second World War is undeniable as it was also responsible for many black Americans migrating from the South to the North in order to find employment after 1945. This migration led to large tensions in Northern GhettoÃ¢â¬â¢s and widespread riots which did bring about negative opinions of the black community and the civil rights campaign. It cannot be denied however, that the increase in Black consciousness did help the NAACP as it increased membership and support for the civil rights campaign. Probably the most well known and essentially influential figure involved in the Civil Rights campaign is Martin Luther King. Although he did not become largely involved in the campaign until 1955 during the Montgomery Bus boycott which did lead to the NAACPÃ¢â¬â¢s court case, Browder V.Ã Gayle, ruling segregation on buses illegal, King was successful in providing the Black communities with a political voice and building up widespread awareness through the media, something which helped to gain the civil rights movement more sympathy from White Americans, particularly in the North. King also founded the SCLC in 1957 which also helped contributed to the movement. However, during the early years of the campaign the NAACP can be seen as the most successful organisation in campaigning towards improving the status of Black Americans in the U. S. In conclusion, I believe that the NAACP was largely responsible for the success of the Civil Rights campaign in the years 1945- 57. However, I also believe that the group would not have been as successful in fighting de jure discrimination in the U. S. if it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for the actions of the Federal Government, in particularly the Supreme Court and the Presidents as these were essentially the ones responsible for the enforcing change. I also believe that the Second World War is also responsible, to some extent, in increasing awareness amongst the Black community which essentially led to increased popularity for the NAACP and its success.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Relationship between Gods and Mortals in Mythology The relationship between gods and mortals in mythology has long been a complicated topic. The gods can be generous and supportive, and also devastating and destructive to any group of humans. Mortals must respect the powers above them that cannot be controlled. The gods rule over destiny, nature, and justice, and need to be recognized and worshipped for the powerful beings as they are. Regardless of one's actions, intentions, and thoughts, the gods in Greek myth have ultimate power and the final decision of justice over nature, mortals, and even each other. Justice is a very important ruling power for both gods and mortals. For instance, in Sophocles' tragedy, Antigone, justice prevails over king Creon's actions. He sentences his own niece to death for giving her deceased brother, a pronounced enemy of Thebes, a proper burial. In return for his rigid ruling he loses his wife and son to tragic deaths. Creon puts his own city?s justice before the determined justice of the gods, and pays dearly for it. Antigone also receives justice for her actions even though she dies. She did go against the law of her mortal king, but did obey the law of the gods, and therefore died a hero and martyr. The laws of the gods gives dishonor to those who do not properly respect their family members. In order to keep her honor and self-respect, Antigone had to break her city?s law, even if it meant death. ?Justice? can also be associated with the goddess of Earth, Justice. Antigone follows the laws of the gods that will live on forever, not Creon?s mere proclamations of power. Antigone will not let her sister die with her because Justice does not allow people to die heroes if ... ...re ancient Greek world and culture. References Consulted Grene, D., and Lattimore, R., eds. ?Antigone? and ?Prometheus Bound.? Greek Tragedies: Volume 1. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1991. 178-232, 65-106. Grene, D., and Lattimore, R., eds. ?The Bacchae.? Greek Tragedies: Volume 3. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1991. 195-262. Powell, B.B. Classical Myth. Prentice Hall: New Jersey. 459-462. Bibliography: References Consulted Grene, D., and Lattimore, R., eds. ?Antigone? and ?Prometheus Bound.? Greek Tragedies: Volume 1. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1991. 178-232, 65-106. Grene, D., and Lattimore, R., eds. ?The Bacchae.? Greek Tragedies: Volume 3. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1991. 195-262. Powell, B.B. Classical Myth. Prentice Hall: New Jersey. 459-462.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Market Equilibration Process ECO / 561 Market Equilibration Process Market Equilibrium occurs when the quantity supplied is equal to quantity demanded. The price equilibrium price exists when buyers and sellers price match and there is no governmental intervention (perfectly competitive market). After a market is in equilibrium, there is no trend for the market price to alter. For example, the law of demand states that as price goes up the quantity demand must go down and similarly, law of supply states price goes up quantity supply must go up (McConnel, Brue, & Flynn, 2009). Viewing the graph below we can find the equilibrium occur at the price of $3 where the quantity demanded equals the quantity supply at three units. The price is stable at $3 and at any other prices will have a |Price (P) |Quantity Demanded (Qd) |Quantity Supplied (Qs) | |$1 |5 |1 | |$2 |4 |2 | |$3 |3 |3 | |$4 |2 |4 | |$5 |1 |5 | Equilibrium occurs at P=$3 (Qs = Qd = 3 units) [pic] a tendency to change. At a dollor, for example, at $1 buyers are able to buy five units but seller are only willing to provide one unit to the market. In this situation, quanitity damand is greater than qualiity supply is referred to as a shortage and will result in an upward pressure in price. Since there is only one unit is available so buyers will complete to buy the one available unit by offering more money. Then price goes up and the qualitity demand decreases, quantity supply rises until equilibrium is reached (McConnel, Brue, & Flynn, 2009). pic] Disequilibrium Disequilibrium occurs when the price or quantity is not equal to Price or Quantity. If the prices are high, surplus is created and there will be inefficiency. Demand surplus is created when prices are below the equilibrium price. Since the prices are low, many buyers want the good while suppliers are not making enough of it. A shift in a demand or supply curve occurs when the goodÃ¢â¬â¢s quantity demanded or supplied changes but the price remains the same. Short-run and Long-run Supervalu is going through a long-run, which is a period when a plant or company has a long period to adjust the quantities of all the resources that it employs. I currently work for Supervalu and its dissolving certain retail stores such as Acme Markets because it is not producing profits in a certain metropolitan markets. Acme Markets price was below the minimum average variable cost and to minimize its losses, Supervalu shut down the retail stores. New retail markets such as Save-a-Lot stores are increasing because it targets at low-medium level income families. Pure Competition Supervalu is part of the pure competition because its retail stores are offering standardized products. Supervalu retail stores are able to freely enter and exit the industry. In pure competition, marginal revenue and price are equal (McConnel, Brue, & Flynn, 2009). Reference McConnel, C. R. , Brue, S. L. , & Flynn, S. M. (2009). Economics: Principles, Problems, and Policies (18th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
APPLE INC. Introduction Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in California. It designs, develops and sells consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. The company was founded on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. Strategy AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy has always revolved around innovation and creating a high-performance culture, through which it achieves and sustains its competitive advantage. MISSION STATEMENT Ã¢â¬Å"Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and internet offerings.Ã¢â¬ VISION STATEMENT Ã¢â¬Å"Apple is committedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Innovation The Boston Consulting Group has ranked Apple as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most innovative company Ã¢â¬â every year since 2005. Apple achieved widespread success with its iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad products, which introduced innovations in mobile phones, portable music players and personal computers respectively. Innovation drives the growth of the company and is its key competitive advantage. It is also the driver of the technology innovation bus. Apple has built an Innovation Factory Ã¢â¬â one that harnesses unbridled creativity from its people, stimulating bold enterprising new ideas, and launching successful, profitable new innovations, time and again. Apple leverages its diverse ecosystem of employees, customers, suppliers, partners global networks, proven innovation process, and a winning culture that doesn t accept second place - to seize the new opportunities in the marketplace and grow its business exponentially. Change Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple in 2011.I believe Apple s brightest and most innovative days are ahead of it, Jobs wrote. 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